Andorra - AD - AND - AND - Europe

Last updated: April 11, 2024
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Andorra Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Espana; telephone: [34] (93) 280-22-27; FAX: [34] (93) 280-61-75; email address:

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.31% (male 5,426/female 5,096)

15-64 years: 68.17% (male 29,845/female 28,419)

65 years and over: 19.52% (2023 est.) (male 8,471/female 8,211)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Andorra. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 1 30 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards


Area - comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Area comparison map

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC


The landlocked Principality of Andorra -- one of the smallest states in Europe and nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders -- is the last independent survivor of the Hispanic March states created by Frankish King Charlemagne in 795 after he halted the Moorish invasion of Spain. The March states were a series of buffer states to keep the Muslim Moors from advancing into Christian France. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.

Andorra's winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping attract approximately 8 million people each year. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of the effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment and engaged in other reforms, such as tax initiatives aimed at supporting broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements, and Andorra uses the euro as its national currency.

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, dental fitting supplies, cars, gold, essential oils (2021)

Administrative divisions

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Agricultural products

small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco, sheep, cattle

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra (under the Ministry of Justice and Interior)


revenues: $1.872 billion (2016)

expenditures: $2.06 billion (2016)


name: Andorra la Vella

geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: translates as "Andorra the Old" in Catalan

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, perfumes, shaving products, liquors (2019)


temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers


0 km (landlocked)


history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993

amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.951 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.921 (2015 est.)

note: while not an EU member state, Andorra has a 2011 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in April 2012

Executive branch

chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)

cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government

elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the co-princes for a 4-year term; election last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2027); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government

election results:
Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) reelected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 57.1%

  Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other 2 so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection

note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem


1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)


tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms

subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts

Land boundaries

total: 118 km

border countries (2): France 55 km; Spain 63 km

Land use

agricultural land: 40% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 38.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 34% (2018 est.)

other: 26% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon (religious) law

Legislative branch

description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in two-seat constituencies (7 parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - voters cast two separate ballots - one for national election and one for their parish

elections: last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2027)

election results:
percent of vote by party/coalition - DA, CC, L'A & ACCIO alliance 43.6%, C 21.4%, AE 16%, PS & SDP alliance 21.1%; seats by party/coalition - DA, CC, L'A & ACCIO alliance 17, C 5, AE 3, PS & SDP alliance 3; composition as of February 2024 - men 14, women 14, percentage women 50%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2016)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation


National holiday

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)


noun: Andorran(s)

adjective: Andorran

Natural resources

hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Geography - note

landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

Economic overview

high GDP; low unemployment; non-EU Euro user; co-principality duty-free area between Spain and France; tourist hub but hit hard by COVID-19; modern, non-tax haven financial sector; looking for big tech investments; new member of SEPA and IMF

Political parties and leaders

Action for Andorra or ACCIO [Judith PALLARES]
Committed Citizens or CC [David BARO Riva]
Concord [Cerni ESCALE Cabre]
Democrats for Andorra or DA [Xaviar ESPOT ZAMORA]
Forward Andorra or AE [Carine Montaner RAYNAUD]
Liberals of Andorra or L'A [Joseph Maria CABANES]
Social Democracy and Progress or SDP [Victor NAUDI]
Social Democratic Party or PS [Pere Lopez AGRAS]

note: Andorra has several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Andorra has a modern telecommunications system with microwave radio relay connections between the exchanges and land line circuits to France and Spain (2020)

domestic: about 63 per 100 fixed-line, 110 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges (2019)


rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Government type

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Andorra

conventional short form: Andorra

local long form: Principat d'Andorra

local short form: Andorra

etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; the name may derive from the Arabic "ad-darra" meaning "the forest," a reference to its location as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century; an alternate explanation is that the name originates from a Navarrese word "andurrial" meaning "shrub-covered land"


Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain

Map references


Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)

chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

email address and website:

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$3.352 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate


urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)

lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS

note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

Major urban areas - population

23,000 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.63 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population

National symbol(s)

red cow (breed unspecified); national colors: blue, yellow, red


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years

Population distribution

population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Spanish 34.3%, Andorran 32.1%, Portuguese 10%, French 5.6%, other 18% (2023 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 89.5, other 8.8%, unaffiliated 1.7% (2020 est.)


Catalan (official) 35.7%, Castilian 43.2%, Portuguese 17.1%, French 8.9%, English 1.8%, other 5% (2018 est.)

note: data represent mother tongue

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m

mean elevation: 1,996 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

9.1% of GDP (2020)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 38.1

youth dependency ratio: 18.1

elderly dependency ratio: 20.1

potential support ratio: 5 (2021)

Mother's mean age at first birth

32.8 years (2019)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A- (2022)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2022)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB+ (2023)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Imports - partners

Spain 71%, France 17% (2019)

Exports - partners

Spain 40%, France 19%, United States 11%, Mauritania 5% (2019)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 8.52 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.47 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 43,000 tons (2012 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites:  1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley


2 (2024)

Gross reproduction rate

0.7 (2023 est.)


1.59% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.64% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.67% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

39,750 (2016)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 48.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 48.1 years

female: 48.1 years

Debt - external

$0 (2016)

Public debt

41% of GDP (2014 est.)
41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.7% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)


85,468 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.9% (of GDP) (2016)

Internet users

total: 74,260 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 94% (2021 est.)


total: 468 sq km

land: 468 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

69% (of GDP) (2016)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.327 billion (2015 est.)
$3.363 billion (2014 est.)
$3.273 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2012 dollars


total: 320 km (2019)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 89,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.9% (2015 est.)
-0.1% (2014 est.)

Current account balance

$467.435 million (2021 est.)
$448.869 million (2020 est.)
$568.257 million (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$49,900 (2015 est.)
$51,300 (2014 est.)
$50,300 (2013 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 37,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 31.8% (2020 est.)

male: 35.3% (2020 est.)

female: 28.3% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

25.6% (2016)

Death rate

8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

6.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$2.143 billion (2021 est.)
$1.727 billion (2020 est.)
$2.032 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$2.414 billion (2021 est.)
$1.842 billion (2020 est.)
$2.335 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 50,871 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.99 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.98 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 81.4 years

female: 86 years

Real GDP growth rate

8.81% (2022 est.)
8.29% (2021 est.)
-11.18% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

4.94% (2022 est.) NA

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.9% (2015 est.)

industry: 33.6% (2015 est.)

services: 54.5% (2015 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.11% (2023 est.)