- Introduction :: Albania
Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939 and occupied by Germany in 1943. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of isolated communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents.
Albania has made progress in its democratic development since it first held multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. Most of Albania's post-communist elections were marred by claims of electoral fraud; however, international observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and in June 2014 became an EU candidate. Albania in April 2017 received a European Commission recommendation to open EU accession negotiations following the passage of historic EU-mandated justice reforms in 2016. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe. A large informal economy and a weak energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles.
- Geography :: Albania
- Location:Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece to the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the northGeographic coordinates:41 00 N, 20 00 EMap references:EuropeArea:total: 28,748 sq kmland: 27,398 sq kmwater: 1,350 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 145Area - comparative:slightly smaller than MarylandLand boundaries:total: 691 kmborder countries (4): Greece 212 km, Kosovo 112 km, Macedonia 181 km, Montenegro 186 kmCoastline:362 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontinental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitationClimate:mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetterTerrain:mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coastElevation:mean elevation: 708 mlowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 mhighest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 mNatural resources:petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower, arable landLand use:agricultural land: 43.1% (2016 est.)arable land: 22.6% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 3% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.5% (2016 est.)forest: 28.12% (2016 est.)other: 28.75% (2016 est.)Irrigated land:3,537 sq km (2014)Population distribution:a fairly even distribution, with somewhat higher concentrations of people in the western and central parts of the countryNatural hazards:destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; droughtEnvironment - current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents; air pollution from industrial and power plants; loss of biodiversity due to lack of resources for sound environmental managementEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
- People and Society :: Albania
- Population:3,057,220 (July 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Nationality:noun: Albanian(s)adjective: AlbanianEthnic groups:Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Romani, Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.)note: data represent population by ethnic and cultural affiliationLanguages:Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Romani, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)Religions:Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2% (2011 est.)
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practiceAge structure:0-14 years: 17.84% (male 287,750 /female 257,675)15-24 years: 16.84% (male 267,695 /female 247,230)25-54 years: 41.31% (male 604,250 /female 658,773)55-64 years: 11.77% (male 176,420 /female 183,391)65 years and over: 12.23% (male 174,752 /female 199,284) (2018 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 44 (2015 est.)youth dependency ratio: 26 (2015 est.)elderly dependency ratio: 18.1 (2015 est.)potential support ratio: 5.5 (2015 est.)Median age:total: 33.4 yearsmale: 32 yearsfemale: 34.7 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Population growth rate:0.3% (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 169Birth rate:13.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 143Death rate:6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Net migration rate:-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Population distribution:a fairly even distribution, with somewhat higher concentrations of people in the western and central parts of the countryUrbanization:urban population: 60.3% of total population (2018)rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)Major urban areas - population:476,000 TIRANA (capital) (2018)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:24.8 years (2017/18 est.)Maternal mortality rate:29 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Infant mortality rate:total: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.6 yearsmale: 76 yearsfemale: 81.6 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 60Total fertility rate:1.52 children born/woman (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Contraceptive prevalence rate:46% (2017/18)Health expenditures:8.2% of GDP (2014)country comparison to the world: 53Physicians density:1.2 physicians/1,000 population (2016)Hospital bed density:2.9 beds/1,000 population (2013)Drinking water source:improved: urban: 84.3% of populationrural: 81.8% of populationtotal: 83.6% of populationunimproved: urban: 15.7% of populationrural: 18.2% of populationtotal: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved: urban: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 90.2% of population (2015 est.)total: 93.2% of population (2015 est.)unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:<.1 (2017 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:1,400 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 132HIV/AIDS - deaths:<100 (2017 est.)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:21.7% (2016)country comparison to the world: 85Children under the age of 5 years underweight:1.5% (2017)country comparison to the world: 116Education expenditures:4% of GDP (2016)country comparison to the world: 108Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)total population: 97.6%male: 98.4%female: 96.9% (2015 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 15 yearsmale: 15 yearsfemale: 16 years (2017)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 31.9%male: 34.2%female: 27.7% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 26
- Government :: Albania
- Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Albaniaconventional short form: Albanialocal long form: Republika e Shqiperiselocal short form: Shqiperiaformer: People's Socialist Republic of Albaniaetymology: the English-language country name seems to be derived from the ancient Illyrian tribe of the Albani; the native name "Shqiperia" is derived from the Albanian word "Shqiponje" ("Eagle") and is popularly interpreted to mean "Land of the Eagles"Government type:parliamentary republicCapital:name: Tirana (Tirane)geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in Octoberetymology: the name Tirana first appears in a 1418 Venetian document; the origin of the name is unclear, but may derive from Tirkan fortress, whose ruins survive on the slopes of Dajti mountain and which overlooks the cityAdministrative divisions:12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, VloreIndependence:28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)National holiday:Independence Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag DayConstitution:history: several previous; latest approved by the Assembly 21 October 1998, adopted by referendum 22 November 1998, promulgated 28 November 1998amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the Assembly membership; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required only if approved by two-thirds of the Assembly; amendments approved by referendum effective upon declaration by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)Legal system:civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the "Code of Leke" prevailsInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionCitizenship:citizenship by birth: nocitizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Albaniadual citizenship recognized: yesresidency requirement for naturalization: 5 yearsSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President of the Republic Ilir META (since 24 July 2017)head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Senida MESI (since 13 September 2017)cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by the Assemblyelections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); a candidate needs three-fifths majority vote of the Assembly in 1 of 3 rounds or a simple majority in 2 additional rounds to become president; election last held in 4 rounds on 19, 20, 27, and 28 April 2017 (next election to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the majority party or coalition of parties in the Assemblyelection results: Ilir META elected president; Assembly vote - 87 - 2 in fourth roundLegislative branch:description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)elections: last held on 25 June 2017 (next to be held in 2021)election results: percent of vote by party - PS 48.3%, PD 28.9%, LSI 14.3%, PDIU 4.8%, PSD 1%, other 2.7%; seats by party - PS 74, PD 43, LSI 19, PDIU 3, PSD 1; composition - men 108, women 32, percent of women 22.9%Judicial branch:highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 17 judges, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the chairman)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges, including the chairman, appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; chairman elected by the People's Assembly for a single 3-year termsubordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First InstancePolitical parties and leaders:Democratic Party or PD [Lulzim BASHA]
Party for Justice, Integration and Unity or PDIU [Shpetim IDRIZI] (formerly part of APMI)
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]
Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Monika KRYEMADHI]
Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]International organization participation:BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Floreta FABER (since 18 May 2015)chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 223-4942FAX:  (202) 628-7342consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 13 January 2015)embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, 103, Tiranamailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510telephone:  (4) 2247-285FAX:  (4) 2232-222Flag description:red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero Georgi Kastrioti SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Ottoman Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-78); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as "Shqiptare," which translates as "sons of the eagle"National symbol(s):black double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blackNational anthem:name: "Hymni i Flamurit" (Hymn to the Flag)lyrics/music: Aleksander Stavre DRENOVA/Ciprian PORUMBESCU
note: adopted 1912
- Economy :: Albania
- Economy - overview:
Albania, a formerly closed, centrally-planned state, is a developing country with a modern open-market economy. Albania managed to weather the first waves of the global financial crisis but, the negative effects of the crisis caused a significant economic slowdown. Since 2014, Albania’s economy has steadily improved and economic growth reached 3.8% in 2017. However, close trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of possible debt crises and weak growth in the euro zone.
Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth, declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 5.8% of GDP in 2015, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for more than 40% of employment but less than one quarter of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming, because of a lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Complex tax codes and licensing requirements, a weak judicial system, endemic corruption, poor enforcement of contracts and property issues, and antiquated infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment making attracting foreign investment difficult. Since 2015, Albania has launched an ambitious program to increase tax compliance and bring more businesses into the formal economy. In July 2016, Albania passed constitutional amendments reforming the judicial system in order to strengthen the rule of law and to reduce deeply entrenched corruption.
Albania’s electricity supply is uneven despite upgraded transmission capacities with neighboring countries. However, the government has recently taken steps to stem non-technical losses and has begun to upgrade the distribution grid. Better enforcement of electricity contracts has improved the financial viability of the sector, decreasing its reliance on budget support. Also, with help from international donors, the government is taking steps to improve the poor road and rail networks, a long standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
Inward foreign direct investment has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The government is focused on the simplification of licensing requirements and tax codes, and it entered into a new arrangement with the IMF for additional financial and technical support. Albania’s three-year IMF program, an extended fund facility arrangement, was successfully concluded in February 2017. The Albanian Government has strengthened tax collection amid moderate public wage and pension increases in an effort to reduce its budget deficit. The country continues to face high public debt, exceeding its former statutory limit of 60% of GDP in 2013 and reaching 72% in 2016.GDP (purchasing power parity):$36.01 billion (2017 est.)$34.67 billion (2016 est.)$33.55 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars; unreported output may be as large as 50% of official GDPcountry comparison to the world: 125GDP (official exchange rate):$13.07 billion (2017 est.)GDP - real growth rate:3.8% (2017 est.)3.4% (2016 est.)2.2% (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 85GDP - per capita (PPP):$12,500 (2017 est.)$12,100 (2016 est.)$11,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollarscountry comparison to the world: 125Gross national saving:15.9% of GDP (2017 est.)16.7% of GDP (2016 est.)16.9% of GDP (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 130GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 78.1% (2017 est.)government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)investment in fixed capital: 25.2% (2017 est.)investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)exports of goods and services: 31.5% (2017 est.)imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2017 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 21.7% (2017 est.)industry: 24.2% (2017 est.)services: 54.1% (2017 est.)Agriculture - products:wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, olives and olive oil, grapes; meat, dairy products; sheep and goatsIndustries:food; footwear, apparel and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropowerIndustrial production growth rate:6.8% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Labor force:1.198 million (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 140Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 41.4%industry: 18.3%services: 40.3% (2017 est.)Unemployment rate:13.8% (2017 est.)15.2% (2016 est.)
note: these official rates may not include those working at near-subsistence farmingcountry comparison to the world: 168Population below poverty line:14.3% (2012 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:29 (2012 est.)30 (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Budget:revenues: 3.614 billion (2017 est.)expenditures: 3.874 billion (2017 est.)Taxes and other revenues:27.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Public debt:71.8% of GDP (2017 est.)73.2% of GDP (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2% (2017 est.)1.3% (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Central bank discount rate:1.25% (31 December 2017)1.25% (31 December 2016)country comparison to the world: 130Commercial bank prime lending rate:8.22% (31 December 2017 est.)9.78% (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 104Stock of narrow money:$4.155 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$3.397 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Stock of broad money:$4.155 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$3.397 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Stock of domestic credit:$8.122 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$7.065 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Current account balance:-$908 million (2017 est.)-$899 million (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 139Exports:$900.7 million (2017 est.)$789.1 million (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Exports - partners:Italy 53.4%, Kosovo 7.7%, Spain 5.6%, Greece 4.2% (2017)Exports - commodities:apparel and clothing, footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; cement and construction materials, vegetables, fruits, tobaccoImports:$4.103 billion (2017 est.)$3.67 billion (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 139Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicalsImports - partners:Italy 28.5%, Turkey 8.1%, Germany 8%, Greece 8%, China 7.9%, Serbia 4% (2017)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$3.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$3.109 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Debt - external:$9.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$8.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 114Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$6.12 billion (31 December 2016 est.)$5.452 billion (31 December 2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 104Exchange rates:leke (ALL) per US dollar -121.9 (2017 est.)124.14 (2016 est.)124.14 (2015 est.)125.96 (2014 est.)105.48 (2013 est.)
- Energy :: Albania
- Electricity access:electrification - total population: 100% (2016)Electricity - production:7.138 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Electricity - consumption:5.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Electricity - exports:1.869 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Electricity - imports:1.827 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 58Electricity - installed generating capacity:2.109 million kW (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Electricity - from fossil fuels:5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:95% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 5Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 172Crude oil - production:16,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 69Crude oil - exports:17,290 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Crude oil - proved reserves:168.3 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Refined petroleum products - production:5,638 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Refined petroleum products - consumption:29,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 120Refined petroleum products - exports:3,250 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 98Refined petroleum products - imports:26,660 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Natural gas - production:50.97 million cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 86Natural gas - consumption:50.97 million cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 58Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Natural gas - proved reserves:821.2 million cu m (1 January 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:4.5 million Mt (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 136
- Communications :: Albania
- Telephones - fixed lines:total subscriptions: 247,010 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Telephones - mobile cellular:total subscriptions: 3,497,950 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Telephone system:general assessment: consistant with the region; offsetting the deficit of fixed-line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; four companies presently providing mobile services and mobile teledensity; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005, and the penetration rate rose to over 65% by 2016; Internet cafes are popular in major urban areas; 1.3 million use mobile broadband services (3G/4G) (2017)domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100, teledensity continues to decline due to heavy use of mobile-cellular telephone services; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective, 115 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2017)international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2016)Broadcast media:Albania has more than 65 TV stations, including several that broadcast nationally; Albanian TV broadcasts are also available to Albanian-speaking populations in neighboring countries; many viewers have access to Italian and Greek TV broadcasts via terrestrial reception; Albania's TV stations have begun a government-mandated conversion from analog to digital broadcast; the government has pledged to provide analog-to-digital converters to low-income families affected by this decision; cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 78 private radio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2017)Internet country code:.alInternet users:total: 2,016,516 (July 2016 est.)percent of population: 66.4% (July 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Broadband - fixed subscriptions:total: 293,623 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 96
- Transportation :: Albania
- National air transport system:number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 151,632 (2015)annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:ZA (2016)Airports:4 (2016)country comparison to the world: 183Airports - with paved runways:total: 4 (2017)2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 1 (2012)914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:498 km gas (a majority of the network is in disrepair and parts of it are missing), 249 km oil (2015)Railways:total: 677 km (447 km of major railway lines and 230 km of secondary lines) (2015)standard gauge: 677 km 1.435-m gauge (2015)country comparison to the world: 103Roadways:total: 3,945 km (2018)country comparison to the world: 123Waterways:41 km (on the Bojana River) (2011)country comparison to the world: 103Merchant marine:total: 60by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 50, oil tanker 1, other 8 (2018)country comparison to the world: 107Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
- Military and Security :: Albania
- Military expenditures:1.22% of GDP (2017)1.23% of GDP (2016)1.16% of GDP (2015)1.35% of GDP (2014)1.41% of GDP (2013)country comparison to the world: 95Military branches:Land Forces Command, Navy Force Command, Air Forces Command (2013)Military service age and obligation:19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age in case of general/partial compulsory mobilization (2012)
- Transnational Issues :: Albania
- Disputes - international:
noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:stateless persons: 4,460 (2017)note: 5,780 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-May 2019);Illicit drugs:active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant source country for cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
AL - Albania (ALB)
Europe :: Albania