Armenia - AM - ARM - ARM - Middle East

Last updated: February 21, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kristina A. KVIEN (since 21 February 2023)

embassy:

1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082



mailing address: 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC  20521-7020

telephone: [374] (10) 464-700

FAX: [374] (10) 464-742

email address and website:
acsyerevan@state.gov

https://am.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.98% (male 282,055/female 255,313)

15-64 years: 67.53% (male 999,784/female 1,018,891)

65 years and over: 14.49% (2023 est.) (male 178,824/female 254,224)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Armenia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

40 00 N, 45 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Maryland


Military service age and obligation

18-27 for voluntary (men and women), contract (men and women) or compulsory (men) military service; contract military service is 3-12 months or 3 or 5 years; conscripts serve 24 months; men under the age of 36, who have not previously served as contract servicemen and are registered in the reserve, as well as women, regardless of whether they are registered in the reserve can be enrolled in contractual military service; all citizens aged 27 to 50 are registered in the military reserve and may be called to serve if mobilization is declared (2023)

note: in 2023, Armenia approved six-month voluntary service for women, after which they have the option to switch to a five-year contract; previously, women served on a contract basis  

note 2: as of 2021, conscripts comprised about half of the military's active personnel; as of 2020, women made up about 10% of the active duty military; the Armenian Army established its first all-women combat unit in 2020

Background

Armenia prides itself on being the first state to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Armenia has existed as a political entity for centuries with varying geographical boundaries and differing levels of political independence, but for much of its history it was under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, Ottoman, and Russian. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices targeting its Armenian subjects, especially those living in the eastern provinces of Anatolia, that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths; these actions have been widely recognized as constituting genocide. During the early 19th century, significant Armenian populations fell under Russian rule as a result of Russian military successes against the Persian (1813) and Ottoman (1828) empires. After the Bolshevik Revolution toppled the last Russian tsar in 1917, Armenia declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenia, along with Azerbaijan and Georgia, was initially incorporated into the USSR as part of the Transcaucasian Federated Soviet Socialist Republic; in 1936, the federated republic was separated into its three constituent entities, which were maintained until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Armenia has a longstanding conflict with neighboring Azerbaijan about the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh region. The region historically had a mixed Armenian and Azerbaijani population, although ethnic Armenians have constituted the majority since the late 19th century. In 1921, Moscow placed Nagorno-Karabakh within Soviet Azerbaijan as an autonomous oblast, a decision that Armenian political leaders and the public repeatedly sought to alter through petitions and complaints, starting in the 1930s. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed that sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a cease-fire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno‑Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. constituting a total of 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s overall territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan engaged in a second military conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh in September-November 2020, as a result of which Armenia lost control over much of the territory it had captured a quarter-century earlier. Under the terms of a cease-fire agreement signed in November 2020, Armenia returned the territories around Nagorno-Karabakh and some parts of Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan and accepted the deployment of Russian peacekeepers to the remainder of the region. Armenia’s only remaining territorial connection to Nagorno-Karabakh after 2020 was through the five-kilometer wide Lacin Corridor, which passed through Azerbaijani-held territory and was under the control of Russian peacekeepers. 

Turkey closed its common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan during the first period of conflict with Armenia and has maintained a closed border since then, leaving Armenia with closed borders both in the west (with Turkey) and east (with Azerbaijan). Armenia and Turkey engaged in intensive diplomacy to normalize their relations and open the border in 2009, but the signed agreement was not ratified in either country and became a dead letter in 2018, when Armenia officially withdrew its signature. In 2015, Armenia joined the Eurasian Economic Union alongside Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. In November 2017, Armenia signed a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with the EU.

In spring 2018, former President of Armenia (2008-18) Serzh SARGSIAN of the Republican Party of Armenia (RPA) tried to extend his time in power by becoming prime minister, prompting popular protests that became known as the “Velvet Revolution.” After SARGSIAN resigned, the leader of the protests, Civil Contract party chief Nikol PASHINYAN, was elected by the National Assembly as the new prime minister on 8 May 2018. PASHINYAN’s party has prevailed in subsequent legislative elections, most recently in June 2021. 


Environment - current issues

soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation; pollution of Hrazdan and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Population below poverty line

26.4% (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)

Exports - commodities

copper ore, gold, liquors, iron alloys, tobacco (2021)

Exports - partners

Russia 22%, Switzerland 20%, China 7%, Bulgaria 6%, Iraq 5%, Serbia 5%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, grapes, vegetables, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat, apples, cabbages, barley

Military and security forces

Armenian Republic Armed Forces: Armenian Army (includes land, air, air defense forces) (2023)

note: the Police of the Republic of Armenia is responsible for internal security, while the National Security Service is responsible for national security, intelligence activities, and border control

Budget

revenues: $3.258 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $3.392 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Yerevan

geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name likely derives from the ancient Urartian fortress of Erebuni established on the current site of Yerevan in 782 B.C. and whose impressive ruins still survive

Imports - commodities

natural gas, cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, diamonds (2019)

Climate

highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Constitution

history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995

amendments:

proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2015, last in 2020; the Constitutional Reform Council formed in 2019 was dissolved in December 2021, and replaced by a new Constitutional Reform Council, whose members were officially appointed in late January 2022; the new council is expected to address the form of government, i.e. presidential or semi-presidential or parliamentary,  and whether to merge the Court of Cassation with the Constitutional Court


Exchange rates

drams (AMD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
503.77 (2021 est.)
489.009 (2020 est.)
480.445 (2019 est.)
482.988 (2018 est.)
482.716 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vahagn KHACHATURYAN (since 13 March 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 10 September 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Mher GRIGORYAN (since 3 August 2021) and Tigran KHACHATRYAN (since 19 December 2022); note - Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN resigned on 25 April 2021 in advance of the 20 June 2021 parliamentary election; he was reappointed by the president on 2 August 2021 and sworn in on 10 September 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 and 3 March 2022 (next election to be held in 2029); prime minister indirectly elected by majority vote in two rounds if needed by the National Assembly

election results:
2022: Vahagn KHACHATURYAN elected president in second round; note - Vahagn KHACHATURYAN (independent) ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 71-0

2018:
Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN (indpendent) ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10

note: Nikol PASHINYAN was first elected prime minister on 8 May 2018 and reelected on January 2019; in response to a political crisis that followed Armenia's defeat in the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in late 2020, PASHINYAN called an early legislative election for 21 June 2021; his party won the election and PASHINYAN was elected prime minister for a third time; his election was confirmed by the president on 2 August 2021, and he was sworn in on 10 September 2021

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it

Illicit drugs

a transit country for illicit drugs with its location between source countries Afghanistan and Iran and the markets of Europe and Russia.

 


Independence

21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 321 B.C. (Kingdom of Armenia established under the Orontid Dynasty), A.D. 884 (Armenian Kingdom reestablished under the Bagratid Dynasty); 1198 (Cilician Kingdom established); 28 May 1918 (Democratic Republic of Armenia declared)

Industries

brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Appeals Court (consists of the Criminal Chamber with a chairman and 5 judges and the Civil and Administrative Chamber with a chairman and 10 judges – with both civil and administrative specializations); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; judges can serve until age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70

subordinate courts: criminal and civil appellate courts; administrative appellate court; first instance courts; specialized administrative and bankruptcy courts

Land boundaries

total: 1,570 km

border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km; Georgia 219 km; Iran 44 km; Turkey 311 km

Land use

agricultural land: 59.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 42% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.1% (2018 est.)

other: 31.2% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, with additional seats allocated as necessary and generally changing with each parliamentary convocation; current - 107; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms; four mandates are reserved for national minorities; no more than 70% of the top membership of a party list can belong to the same sex; political parties must meet a 5% threshold and alliances a 7% threshold to win seats; at least three parties must be seated in the Parliament)

elections: last held early on 20 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Civil Contract 53.9%, Armenia Alliance 21%, I Have Honour Alliance 5.2%, other 19.9%; seats by party/coalition - Civil Contract 71, Armenia Alliance 29, I Have Honour Alliance 7; composition as of January 2024 - men 68, women 39, percent of women 36.5%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2020)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation

ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Nationality

noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian

Natural resources

small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite

Geography - note

landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

Economic overview

EEU-and CIS-member state but seeking more EU and US trade; business-friendly growth environments; stable monetary regime but vulnerable demand economy; key copper and gold exporter; persistent unemployment; large diaspora and remittances

Pipelines

3,838 km gas (high and medium pressure) (2017)

Political parties and leaders

5165 National Conservative Movement Party [Karin TONOYAN]
Alliance of Democrats [Arman BABAJANYAN]
Armenia Alliance or HD [Robert KOCHARYAN]
(formerly known as the Armenian Revolutionary Federation)
Armenian National Congress or ANC [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN] (bloc of independent and opposition parties)
Bright Armenia [Edmon MARUKYAN]
Civil Contract or KP [Nikol PASHINYAN]
Country To Live In [Mane TANDILYAN]
Homeland of Armenians [Artak GALSTYAN]
Homeland Party [Artur VANETSYAN]
I Have Honor Alliance (formerly known as the Republican Party of Armenia, [Serzh SARGSIAN]
Liberal Party [Samvel BABAYAN]
National Democratic Party [Vahe GASPARYAN]
Prosperous Armenia or BHK [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Republic Party (Hanrapetutyun Party) [Aram SARGSYAN]

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Armenia’s telecom sector was able to post in the mobile and broadband segments; its fixed-line penetration continues to slide downwards, with the rollout of fiber networks which have encouraged the increase in bundled services; the fixed broadband market remains undeveloped due to the lack of underlying infrastructure outside the main cities (2021)

domestic: roughly 15 per 100 fixed-line and 129 per 100 mobile-cellular; reliable fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas (2021)

international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic cable through Georgia and Iran to Europe; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)

Terrain

Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Government type

parliamentary democracy; note - constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 transformed the government to a parliamentary system

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form: Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic

etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia

Location

Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Map references

Asia

Irrigated land

1,554 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lilit MAKUNTS (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982

email address and website:
armembassyusa@mfa.am

https://usa.mfa.am/en/

consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)

Internet country code

.am

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 27,929 (Azerbaijan) (mid-year 2022)

IDPs: 8,400 (2022)

stateless persons: 816 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.694 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2020)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

7.77 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2021)

Urbanization

urban population: 63.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Armenia’s government-run Public Television network operates alongside 100 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; three Russian TV companies are broadcast in Armenia under interstate agreements; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; several major international broadcasters are available, including CNN; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 18 privately owned radio stations

(2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)

lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN

note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Armenia. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.095 million YEREVAN (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

4.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

4.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)

National symbol(s)

Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange

Mother's mean age at first birth

25.2 years (2019 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

57.1% (2015/16)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 76.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -50.4% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.6

youth dependency ratio: 30.6

elderly dependency ratio: 19.1

potential support ratio: 5.2 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Population distribution

most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

EK

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 84.6% of population

total: 94.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 15.4% of population

total: 5.6% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi 1.1%, other 0.8% (2022 est.)

Religions

Armenian Apostolic Christian 95.2%, other Christian 1.6%, other 0.9%, none 0.6%, unspecified 1.7% (2022 est.)

Languages

Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurmanji (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1.1%; note - Russian is widely spoken (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Աշխարհի Փաստագիրք, Անփոխարինելի Աղբյւր Հիմնական Տեղեկատվւթյան. (Armenian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Armenian audio sample

Imports - partners

Russia 29%, China 10%, Georgia 8%, Iran 6%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders

Armenia-Azerbaijan: tensions existed for years over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan seized part of the enclave during six weeks of fighting in 2020 and the remainder in a short conflict in September 2023; in October 2023, Baku and Yerevan began preliminary discussions on a peace treaty, the demarcation of borders, and full normalization of relations; nevertheless, concerns persist in Armenia that Azerbaijan could invade in order to force the establishment of a transit corridor to the exclave of Naxicvan (Nakhichevan) 

Armenia-Georgia: Georgians restrict Armenian access into Samtse-Javakheti ethnic Armenian areas; Armenia has made no claims to the region

Armenia-Iran: none identified

Armenia-Turkey: as of 2023, Turkey and Armenia were discussing normalizing relations


Elevation

highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

lowest point: Debed River 400 m

mean elevation: 1,792 m

Current health expenditure

12.2% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Armenian Armed Forces were officially established in 1992, although their origins go back to 1918; the modern military’s missions include deterrence, territorial defense, crisis management, humanitarian assistance, and disaster response, as well as socio-economic development projects; territorial defense is its primary focus, particularly in regards to tensions with neighboring Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region; Armenia and Azerbaijan engaged in open conflicts over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave in 1991-94 and 2020, plus a brief flare-up in 2016; tensions continued following the 2020 conflict; Azerbaijan seized the entire enclave in 2023 

the bulk of the Armenian military’s ground combat forces are organized into five small corps that are typically comprised of one or more Soviet-style “motorized rifle” (mechanized infantry) regiments, plus supporting units of artillery, reconnaissance, and tank forces; there are also separate artillery, air defense, battlefield rocket, and special operations forces, as well as a brigade dedicated to peacekeeping missions; the air combat forces consist of small numbers of Soviet-era ground attack aircraft and attack helicopters; Armenia is landlocked so it has no naval forces  

Armenia has close military ties with Russia and hosts Russian military forces at two bases, as well as Russian border guards along multiple border areas; it has been a member of the Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) since 1994 and committed troops to CSTO's rapid reaction force; Armenia has relations with NATO going back to 1992 when Armenia joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council; in 1994, it joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program and has contributed to the NATO force in Kosovo, as well as the former NATO deployment in Afghanistan (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 45,000 active troops (42,000 ground; 3,000 air/defense) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes mostly Russian and Soviet-era equipment (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 650 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 190 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.99 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 492,800 tons (2014 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 34.13 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 5.16 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.91 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (3 cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin; Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley; Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Sevan - 1,360 sq km

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0%

women married by age 18: 5.3%

men married by age 18: 0.4% (2016 est.)

Heliports

1 (2024)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 12,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 12,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 163 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 40.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 34.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 24.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2,537,497,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 2,514,220,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 10,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Demographic profile

Armenia’s population peaked at nearly 3.7 million in the late 1980s but has declined sharply since independence in 1991, to just over 3 million in 2021, largely as a result of its decreasing fertility rate, increasing death rate, and negative net emigration rate.  The total fertility rate (the average number of children born per woman) first fell below the 2.1 replacement level in the late 1990s and has hovered around 1.6-1.65 for over 15 years.  In an effort to increase the country’s birth rate, the government has expanded its child benefits, including a substantial increase in the lump sum payment for having a first and second child and a boost in the monthly payment to mothers of children under two.  Reversing net negative migration, however, remains the biggest obstacle to stabilizing or increasing population growth.  Emigration causes Armenia not only lose individuals but also the children they might have. 

The emigration of a significant number of working-age people combined with decreased fertility and increased life expectancy is causing the elderly share of Armenia’s population to grow.  The growing elderly population will put increasing pressure on the government’s ability to fund the pension system, health care, and other services for seniors.  Improving education, creating more jobs (particularly in the formal sector), promoting labor market participation, and increasing productivity would mitigate the financial impact of supporting a growing elderly population.

Armenia has a long history of migration, some forced and some voluntary.  Its large diaspora is diverse and dispersed around the world.  Widely varying estimates suggest the Armenian diaspora may number anywhere from 5-9 million, easily outnumbering the number of Armenians living in Armenia.  Armenians forged communities abroad from ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome to Russia and to the Americas, where they excelled as craftsmen, merchants, and in other occupations. 

Several waves of Armenian migration occurred in the 20th century.  In the aftermath of the 1915 Armenian genocide, hundreds of thousands of survivors fled to communities in the Caucasus (including present day Armenia), Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Europe, and Russia and established new communities in Africa and the Americas.  In the 1930s, the Soviets deported thousands of Armenians to Siberia and Central Asia.  After World War II, the Soviets encouraged the Armenian diaspora in France, the Middle East, and Iran to return the Armenian homeland in order to encourage population growth after significant losses in the male workforce during the war. 

Following Armenian independence in 1991, the economic downturn and high unemployment prompted hundreds of thousands of Armenians to seek better economic opportunities primarily in Russia but also in the US, former Soviet states, and Europe.  In the early 1990s, hundreds of thousands of Armenians fled from Azerbaijan to Armenia because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karbakh conflict, but many of them then emigrated again, mainly to Russia and the US.  When the economy became more stable in the late 1990s, permanent emigration slowed, but Armenians continued to seek temporary seasonal work in Russia.  The remittances families receive from relatives working abroad is vital to Armenian households and the country’s economy.

Gross reproduction rate

0.8 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

64.8% (2023 est.)

Remittances

11.62% of GDP (2021 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
11.22% of GDP (2019 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 1 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0.42GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 25.3% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 52.3% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Space agency/agencies

no government agency; Armenia Space Agency (ArmCosmos; established 2013) is a private agency that operates on behalf of the Armenian Government to develop the country’s commercial space industry and facilitate international engagement on space, particularly satellites for Armenia (2023)

Space program overview

seeks foreign providers for satellite communications, remote sensing (RS), and navigational services; otherwise relies on Russia for satellite needs; seeks to use RS satellite data for border control, emergency prevention and management, environmental protection/climate change monitoring, geology, road construction, urban planning, and other purposes; cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of China, the European Space Agency (and individual ESA member states such as Germany and Spain), India, Russia, and the US; has a state-owned company involved in satellite development and production (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Labor force

1.153 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 36.1% (2021 est.)

male: 34%

female: 38.7%

Net migration rate

-5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 38.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 36.9 years

female: 39.8 years

Debt - external

$11.637 billion (2019 est.)
$10.785 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

27 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.23 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$2.616 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$2.85 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

7,145 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

63.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
50.03% of GDP (2019 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.65 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
4.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
5% of GDP (2020 est.)
5.3% of GDP (2019 est.)
4.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

20.9% (2021 est.)
21.21% (2020 est.)
18.3% (2019 est.)

Population

2,989,091 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-4.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 2.212 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 79% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

6.354 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 12,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.364 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.978 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 29,743 sq km

land: 28,203 sq km

water: 1,540 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

21.86% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$39.613 billion (2021 est.)
$37.476 billion (2020 est.)
$40.384 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 7,700 km (2019)

urban: 3,780 km

non-urban: 3,920 km

Infant mortality rate

total: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,599,278 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

25.2 (2020 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.18% (2021 est.)
1.21% (2020 est.)
1.44% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$515.126 million (2021 est.)
-$477.811 million (2020 est.)
-$996.978 million (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,200 (2021 est.)
$13,400 (2020 est.)
$14,300 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 430,407 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 25.5% (2020 est.)

male: 49.4% (2020 est.)

female: 1.5% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.2% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

53.019 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 3.633 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 5,758,470,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 1.251 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 320 million kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 548 million kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.6% (2015/16)

Imports

$6.12 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.082 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$7.603 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$5.012 billion (2021 est.)
$3.818 billion (2020 est.)
$5.794 billion (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 365,649 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 3.77 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.4 years (2023 est.)

male: 73.1 years

female: 79.9 years

Real GDP growth rate

5.7% (2021 est.)
-7.2% (2020 est.)
7.6% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

3.4% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 686 km (2017)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 54.8% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.28% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.4% (2023 est.)

Airports

11 (2024)