Bermuda - BM - BMU - BER - North America

Last updated: February 22, 2024
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Bermuda Factbook Data

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Consul General Karen GRISSETTE (since 6 July 2021)

embassy: US Consulate Bermuda, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, DV 03, Bermuda

mailing address: 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone: (441) 295-1342

FAX: (441) 295-1592

email address and website:
HamiltonConsulate@state.gov

https://bm.usconsulate.gov/

consulate(s) general: 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DV O3

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.45% (male 6,126/female 5,815)

15-64 years: 61.66% (male 22,401/female 22,347)

65 years and over: 21.89% (2023 est.) (male 6,763/female 9,124)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Bermuda. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

32 20 N, 64 45 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

hurricanes (June to November)

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Military service age and obligation

men and women who are Commonwealth citizens and 18-45 years of age can volunteer for the Bermuda Regiment; service is for a minimum period of three years and two months from the date of enlistment; service can be extended only by volunteering or an executive order from the Governor; annual training commitment is about 30 days a year, which includes a two-week camp, weekends, and drill nights (2023)

Environment - current issues

dense population and heavy vehicle traffic create serious congestion and air pollution problems; water resources scarce (most obtained as rainwater or from wells); solid waste disposal; hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal; overfishing; oil spills

Population below poverty line

11% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

recreational boats, ships, trailers, aircraft, fertilizers (2021)

Exports - partners

Jamaica 49.1%, Luxembourg 36.1%, US 4.9% (2017)

Administrative divisions

9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Agricultural products

bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey

Military and security forces

Royal Bermuda Regiment; Bermuda Police Service (2023)

note: the Royal Bermuda Regiment (aka "The Regiment") includes the Royal Bermuda Regiment Coast Guard

Budget

revenues: $999.2 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: $1.176 billion (2017 est.)

Capital

name: Hamilton

geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: named after Henry HAMILTON (ca. 1734-1796) who served as governor of Bermuda from 1788-1794

Imports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, postage stamps, recreational boats, aircraft (2019)

Climate

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Coastline

103 km

Constitution

history: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968 (Bermuda Constitution Order 1968)

amendments: proposal procedure - NA; passage by an Order in Council in the UK; amended several times, last in 2012

Exchange rates

Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1 (2021 est.)
1 (2020 est.)
1 (2019 est.)
1 (2018 est.)
1 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Rena LALGIE (since 14 December 2020)

head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Flag description

red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda

note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Industries

international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) is the court of final appeal

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment

subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 20% (2018 est.)

other: 65.2% (2018 est.)

Legal system

English common law

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (11 seats; 3 members appointed by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) 
House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last appointments in 2022 (next appointments in 2027)
House of Assembly - last held on 1 October 2020 (next to be held by 2025)

election results: Senate - composition as of October 2023 - men 4, women 7, percent of women 63.6%
House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - PLP 62.1%, OBA 32.3%, other 5.4%, independent 0.2%; seats by party - PLP 30, OBA 6; composition as of October 2023 - men 26, women 9, percent of women 25%; note - total Parliament percent of women as of September 2023 - 34%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO

National holiday

Bermuda Day, 24 May; note - formerly known as Victoria Day, Empire Day, and Commonwealth Day

Nationality

noun: Bermudian(s)

adjective: Bermudian

Natural resources

limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Geography - note

consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995

Economic overview

small, tourism- and construction-based, territorial-island economy; American import and tourist destination; known offshore banking hub; increasing inflation; major re-exportation and re-importation area

Political parties and leaders

Free Democratic Movement or FDM [Marc A. R. BEAN]
One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [N. H. Cole SIMONS]
Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom sector has seen a decline in subscriber numbers (particularly for prepaid mobile services the mainstay of short term visitors) and revenue; fixed and mobile broadband services are two areas that have benefited from the crisis as employees and students have resorted to working from home; one area of the telecom market that is not prepared for growth is 5G mobile; governments, regulators, and even the mobile network operators have shown that they have not been investing in 5G opportunities at the present time; network expansion and enhancements remain concentrated around improving LTE coverage (2021)

domestic: the system has a fixed-line teledensity of 39 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 110 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the CB-1 submarine cables to the Caribbean, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)

Terrain

low hills separated by fertile depressions

Government type

Overseas Territory of the UK with limited self-government; parliamentary democracy

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Bermuda Regiment’s responsibilities include maritime security of Bermuda’s inshore waters, search and rescue, ceremonial duties, humanitarian/disaster assistance, security of key installations, and assisting the Bermuda Police with maintaining public order; it includes explosive ordnance disposal, diver, maritime, security police, and support units (2023)

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bermuda

former: Somers Islands

etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago

Location

North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

Map references

North America

Irrigated land

NA

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Internet country code

.bm

GDP (official exchange rate)

$6.127 billion (2016 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: N/A (2015)

Moody's rating: A2 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2015)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating

National anthem

name: Hail to Bermuda

lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

Major urban areas - population

10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

National symbol(s)

red lion
Coat of arms of Bermuda
The coat of arms of Bermuda were formally granted by Royal Warrant on 4 October 1910, but had been in use since at least 1624. The coat of arms of Bermuda depicts a red lion holding a shield that has a depiction of a wrecked ship upon it. The red lion is a symbol of Great Britain and alludes to Bermuda's relationship with that country. The Latin motto under the coat of arms, Quo Fata Ferunt, means "Whither the Fates Carry [Us]". The wrecked ship is the Sea Venture. The heraldic blazon is: Argent, on a mount vert a lion sejant affronté gules supporting between the fore-paws an antique shield azure thereon a representation of the wreck of the ship Sea Venture proper.

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 51.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 49.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2017 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Population distribution

relatively even population distribution throughout

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

VP-B

Ethnic groups

African descent 52%, White 31%, mixed 9%, Asian 4%, other 4% (2010 est.)

Religions

Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0%, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)

Languages

English (official), Portuguese

Imports - partners

United States 44%, South Korea 17%, Germany 10%, Canada 8% (2019)

Disputes - international

none identified


Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Elevation

highest point: Town Hill 79 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Physicians density

NA

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

NA

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.9

youth dependency ratio: 22.8

elderly dependency ratio: 30.1

potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Royal Bermuda Regiment has about 350 troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Regiment is equipped with small arms (2023)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 82,000 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,640 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 2% (2012 est.)

Air pollutants

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.61 megatons (2016 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural); note - excerpted from the UK entry

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.92 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

47.6% (2023 est.)

Remittances

22.86% of GDP (2020 est.)
20.84% of GDP (2019 est.)
20.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

Labor force

33,480 (2016 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 29.3% (2014 est.)

male: 29.7%

female: 29%

Net migration rate

1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 43.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 41.4 years

female: 46.3 years

Debt - external

$2.515 billion (2017 est.)
$2.435 billion (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

3,939 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

43% of GDP (FY14/15)

Total fertility rate

1.89 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)

Population

72,576 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 64,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 100% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 54 sq km

land: 54 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.127 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4.863 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$5.22 billion (2019 est.)

Roadways

total: 447 km

paved: 447 km (2010)

note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 68,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.9% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$1.015 billion (2021 est.)
$853.85 million (2020 est.)
$838.701 million (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$80,300 (2021 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$76,100 (2020 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars
$81,700 (2019 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 23,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

176.312 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 172,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 533.434 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 41 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 122 (2023)

by type: container ship 15, oil tanker 8, other 99

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$1.925 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.723 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.224 billion (2019 est.)

Exports

$1.123 billion (2021 est.)
$1.027 billion (2020 est.)
$1.605 billion (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 25,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.2 years

female: 85.5 years

Real GDP growth rate

5.41% (2021 est.)
-6.84% (2020 est.)
0.31% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

0.1% (2021 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 5.3% (2017 est.)

services: 93.8% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

1.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.32% (2023 est.)

Background

Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British Overseas Territories. Vacationing to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has also developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.

Airports

1 (2024)