Brunei - BN - BRN - BRU - East and Southeast Asia

Last updated: April 16, 2024
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Brunei Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Caryn R. McCLELLAND (since December 2021)

embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Duta, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115

mailing address: 4020 Bandar Seri Begawan Place, Washington DC  20521-4020

telephone: (673) 238-7400

FAX: (673) 238-7533

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.83% (male 54,523/female 51,334)

15-64 years: 71.07% (male 164,957/female 179,721)

65 years and over: 7.1% (2023 est.) (male 16,748/female 17,708)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Brunei. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

4 30 N, 114 40 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


14 (2024)

Natural hazards

typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Delaware
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Delaware

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve (2024)

note: the Gurkha Reserve Unit (GRU) employs about 500 Gurkhas from Nepal, the majority of whom are veterans of the British Army and the Singapore Police Force who have joined the GRU as a second career


The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy subsequently brought on a period of decline. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries, and in 2017, the country celebrated the 50th anniversary of Sultan Hassanal BOLKIAH’s accession to the throne. Brunei has one of the highest per-capita GDPs in the world, thanks to extensive petroleum and natural gas fields.

Environment - current issues

no major environmental problems, but air pollution control is becoming a concern; seasonal trans-boundary haze from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, natural gas, crude petroleum, industrial hydrocarbons, industrial alcohols  (2021)

Exports - partners

Singapore 21%, China 20%, Japan 19%, Australia 14%, Malaysia 5% (2021)

Administrative divisions

4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei dan Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Agricultural products

poultry, eggs, fruit, cassava, bananas, legumes, cucumbers, rice, pineapples, beef

Military and security forces

Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Joint Force

Ministry of Home Affairs: Royal Brunei Police Force (2024)

note: the Gurkha Reserve Unit (GRU) under the Ministry of Defense is a special guard force for the Sultan, the royal family, and the country’s oil installations


revenues: $1.058 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $3.189 billion (2020 est.)


name: Bandar Seri Begawan

geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: named in 1970 after Sultan Omar Ali SAIFUDDIEN III (1914-1986; "The Father of Independence") who adopted the title of "Seri Begawan" (approximate meaning "honored lord") upon his abdication in 1967; "bandar" in Malay means "town" or "city"; the capital had previously been called Bandar Brunei (Brunei Town)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, cars, tug boats, valves (2019)


tropical; hot, humid, rainy


161 km


history: drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984

amendments: proposed by the monarch; passage requires submission to the Privy Council for Legislative Council review and finalization takes place by proclamation; the monarch can accept or reject changes to the original proposal provided by the Legislative Council; amended several times, last in 2010

Exchange rates

Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.379 (2022 est.)
1.344 (2021 est.)
1.38 (2020 est.)
1.364 (2019 est.)
1.349 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council; Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah is also Minister of Finance, Defense, and Foreign Affairs and Trade

elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Flag description

yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty


1 January 1984 (from the UK)


petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, aquaculture, transportation

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court (consists the Court of Appeals and the High Court); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council (in London) serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court judges appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrates' Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts

Land boundaries

total: 266 km

border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km

Land use

agricultural land: 2.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 71.8% (2018 est.)

other: 25.7% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in April 2019, the full sharia penal codes came into force and apply to Muslims and partly to non-Muslims in parallel with present common law codes

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (33 seats; 20 members appointed by the sultan from ex-officio cabinet ministers, titled people, and prominent citizens in public service and various professional fields, 13 members from 4 multi-seat constituencies, and 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries); members serve 5-year terms

elections: January 2023 - appointed by the sultan

election results: Legislative Council last appointed January 2023; composition men 30, women 4, percent of women 11.8%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.6%

male: 98.3%

female: 96.9% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

International organization participation


National holiday

National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection; the Sultan's birthday, 15 June


noun: Bruneian(s)

adjective: Bruneian

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, timber

Geography - note

close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; the eastern part, the Temburong district, is an exclave and is almost an enclave within Malaysia

Economic overview

almost exclusively an oil and gas economy; high income country; expansive and robust welfare system; the majority of the population works for the government; promulgating a nationalized halal brand; considering establishment of a bond market and stock exchange


33 km condensate, 86 km condensate/gas, 628 km gas, 492 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

National Development Party or NDP [Zainal Talib]

note: the NDP is Brunei’s only registered party, but does not have representation in the Legislative Council, which is appointed

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Muara

oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria

LNG terminal(s) (export): Lumut


18 years of age for village elections; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Brunei’s mobile market experienced drop-off in subscriber numbers in 2020; in 2022 there was a concerted effort to build out the fixed-line infrastructure while progressing towards introducing 5G mobile services, which was activated in June 2023; Brunei’s fixed-line market is one of the few countries in the world to have displayed significant growth rather than a decline in teledensity in the last few years; this upward trend is set to continue as the new Unified National Network (UNN) works diligently to expand and enhance the fixed-line infrastructure around the country; strong growth was also seen in the fixed broadband space, on the back of those same infrastructure developments that are part of the Brunei Vision 2035 initiative; fixed broadband is starting from a relatively low base by international standards and is still only at 18%, leaving lots of room for growth; mobile and mobile broadband, on the other hand, are still suffering from the market contractions first felt in 2020; Brunei’s 2G GSM network is shut down, with the spectrum to be reallocated to 3G, 4G, and potentially 5G use (2023)

domestic: 25 per 100 fixed-line, 136 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 673; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, SJC, AAG, Lubuan-Brunei Submarine Cable via optical telecommunications submarine cables that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)


flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Government type

absolute monarchy or sultanate

Country name

conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form: Brunei

local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam

local short form: Brunei

etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed "Baru nah," which roughly translates as "there" or "that's it"


Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Map references

Southeast Asia

Irrigated land

10 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji SERBINI bin Haji Ali (since 28 January 2016)

chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838

FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

email address and website:

consulate(s): New York

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 20,863 (2022); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land

GDP (official exchange rate)

$16.682 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Total renewable water resources

8.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2020)


urban population: 79.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters

National anthem

name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)

lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

note: adopted 1951
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Brunei. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

266,682 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) (2021)

note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICC

Physicians density

1.61 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

2.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 25% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 8.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 45.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.8% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 39.2

youth dependency ratio: 31.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.1

potential support ratio: 12.4 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,234,455 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 129.35 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Ethnic groups

Malay 67.4%, Chinese 9.6%, other 23% (2021 est.)


Muslim (official) 82.1%, Christian 6.7%, Buddhist 6.3%, other 4.9% (2021 est.)


Malay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects

major-language sample(s):
Buku Fakta Dunia, sumber yang diperlukan untuk maklumat asas. (Malay)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Malay audio sample

Imports - partners

Singapore 18%, China 14%, Malaysia 12%, Nigeria 5%, United Arab Emirates 5%, United States 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 478 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

2.4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Royal Brunei Armed Forces were formed in 1961 with British support as the Brunei Malay Regiment; "Royal" was added as an honorary title in 1965 and its current name was given in 1984; the military is responsible for ensuring the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as countering outside aggression, terrorism, and insurgency; the Army is comprised of a few infantry battalions and an armored reconnaissance squadron, while the Navy has several corvettes and patrol vessels for monitoring the country’s territorial waters; the small Air Force does not have any combat aircraft, but operates some maritime patrol aircraft and helicopters 

Brunei has a long-standing defense relationship with the UK and hosts a British Army garrison, which includes a Gurkha battalion and a jungle warfare school; Brunei also hosts a Singaporean military training detachment

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 7,000 total active-duty troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's s inventory includes equipment and weapons systems from a wide variety of suppliers from Asia, Europe, and the US (2023)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

Population distribution

the vast majority of the population is found along the coast in the western part of Brunei, which is separated from the eastern portion by Malaysia; the largest population concentration is in the far north on the western side of the Brunei Bay, in and around the capital of Bandar Seri Begawan

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 150 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 216,253 tons (2016 est.)

Demographic profile

Brunei is a small, oil-rich sultanate of less than half a million people, making it the smallest country in Southeast Asia by population.  Its total fertility rate – the average number of births per woman – has been steadily declining over the last few decades, from over 3.5 in the 1980s to below replacement level today at nearly 1.8.  The trend is due to women’s increased years of education and participation in the workforce, which have resulted in later marriages and fewer children.  Yet, the population continues to grow because of the large number of women of reproductive age and a reliance on foreign labor – mainly from Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and South Asian countries – to fill low-skilled jobs.

Brunei is officially Muslim, and Malay is the official language.  The country follows an official Malay national ideology, Malay Islamic Monarchy, which promotes Malay language and culture, Islamic values, and the monarchy.  Only seven of Brunei’s native groups are recognized in the constitution and are defined as “Malay” – Brunei Malays, Belait, Kedayan, Dusun, Bisayak, Lun Bawang, and Sama-Baiau.  Together they make up about 66% percent of the population and are referred to as the Bumiputera.  The Bumiputera are entitled to official privileges, including land ownership, access to certain types of employment (Royal Brunei Armed Forces and Brunei Shell Petroleum), easier access to higher education, and better job opportunities in the civil service. 

Brunei’s Chinese population descends from migrants who arrived when Brunei was a British protectorate (1888 and 1984).  They are prominent in the non-state commercial sector and account for approximately 10% of the population.  Most Bruneian Chinese are permanent residents rather than citizens despite roots going back several generations.  Many are stateless and are denied rights granted to citizens, such as land ownership, subsidized health care, and free secondary and university education.  Because of the discriminatory policies, the number of Chinese in Brunei has shrunk considerably in the last 50 years.  Native ethnic groups that are not included in the Bumiputera are not recognized in the constitution and are not officially identified as “Malay” or automatically granted citizenship.  Foreign workers constitute some quarter of the labor force.

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 6.86 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 7.66 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 8.4 megatons (2020 est.)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Brunei does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so, therefore Brunei was upgraded to Tier 2 Watch List; key achievements included referring two alleged traffickers for prosecution, including one Bruneian national, identifying and providing assistance to 14 victims, opening two shelters for victims, and signing a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding with Bangladesh on recruitment of migrant workers; however, the government did not effectively screen for trafficking among foreign nationals in commercial sex and migrant workers; officials handled some potential trafficking cases administratively, if at all, and probably inappropriately detained, prosecuted, and deported potentially unidentified sex and labor trafficking victims; for the sixth consecutive year, the government did not convict any traffickers under its anti-trafficking law, and other laws that could be used to prosecute traffickers did not provide sufficiently stringent sentences (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit foreign victims in Brunei; some men and women who migrate to Brunei to work in domestic service, retail, or construction work are subject to involuntary servitude, debt-based coercion, contract switching, non-payment of wages, passport confiscation, physical abuse, or confinement; some female migrants entering Brunei on tourist visas are forced into prostitution, and some Kenyan women reportedly faced forced labor in Brunei; workers from Bangladesh and China may have been forced to work in Brunei at Chinese-run projects; some traffickers use Brunei as a transit point for victims used for sex and labor trafficking in Malaysia and Indonesia; Anti-LGBTQI+ laws place some LGBTQI+ individuals at higher risk; trafficking experts in Brunei have received threats from traffickers (2023)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 12,498,299,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,166,987,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 7,774,406,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 260.515 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 107,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 18,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 103,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 1.1 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

54.3% (2023 est.)


0.01% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.01% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.01% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

225,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 23.4% (2021 est.)

male: 20.7%

female: 27.6%

Net migration rate

2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 32 years (2023 est.)

male: 31.1 years

female: 32.8 years

Debt - external

$0 (2014)
$0 (2013)

note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable

Maternal mortality ratio

44 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.035 billion (2022 est.)
$4.982 billion (2021 est.)
$3.997 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


209 km (2012) (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong Rivers are major transport links)

Refined petroleum products - imports

6,948 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
3% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2022)
3.1% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
3.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.45% (2022 est.)
4.91% (2021 est.)
7.41% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


484,991 (2023 est.)

note: immigrants make up approximately 26% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-17.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 441,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 98% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

9.956 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.387 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 7.569 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 5,765 sq km

land: 5,265 sq km

water: 500 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$26.343 billion (2022 est.)
$26.779 billion (2021 est.)
$27.212 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 2,976 km

paved: 2,559 km

unpaved: 417 km (2014)


2 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 603,486 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.68% (2022 est.)
1.73% (2021 est.)
1.94% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$3.264 billion (2022 est.)
$1.57 billion (2021 est.)
$513.713 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$58,700 (2022 est.)
$60,100 (2021 est.)
$61,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 71,078 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 16.2% (2020 est.)

male: 30% (2020 est.)

female: 2.3% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

14.1% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

415.184 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

3.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

16 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 1.261 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,140,140,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 497 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 97 (2023)

by type: general cargo 18, oil tanker 2, other 77

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$10.106 billion (2022 est.)
$9.219 billion (2021 est.)
$6.382 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$14.411 billion (2022 est.)
$11.202 billion (2021 est.)
$6.886 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 122,204 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

10,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.69 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 76.3 years

female: 81.1 years

Real GDP growth rate

-1.63% (2022 est.)
-1.59% (2021 est.)
1.13% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

-4.91% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 56.6% (2017 est.)

services: 42.3% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.43% (2023 est.)