Brazil - BR - BRA - BRA - South America

Last updated: February 21, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY (since 5 February 2023)

embassy: SES - Avenida das Nações, Quadra 801, Lote 3, 70403-900 - Brasília, DF

mailing address: 7500 Brasilia Place, Washington DC  20521-7500

telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136

email address and website:
BrasilliaACS@state.gov

https://br.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo

branch office(s): Belo Horizonte

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.77% (male 22,084,172/female 21,148,290)

15-64 years: 69.72% (male 75,612,047/female 76,853,504)

65 years and over: 10.51% (2023 est.) (male 9,848,975/female 13,142,769)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Brazil. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 55 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Heliports

1,768 (2024)

Natural hazards

recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than the US
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than the US


Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for compulsory military service for men (women exempted); only 5-10% of those inducted are required to serve; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service (2024)

note: in 2022, women comprised approximately 9% of the Brazilian military

Background

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getúlio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. VARGAS governed over various versions of democratic and authoritarian regimes from 1930 to 1945. Democratic rule returned (including a democratically elected VARGAS administration from 1951 to 1955) and lasted until 1964, when the military overthrew President João GOULART. The military regime censored journalists and repressed and tortured dissidents in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The dictatorship lasted until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers, and the Brazilian Congress passed its current constitution in 1989. 

By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, under President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (2003-2010) Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. A money-laundering investigation, Operation Lava Jato, uncovered a vast corruption scheme and prosecutors charged several high-profile Brazilian politicians with crimes. Former-President LULA was convicted of accepting bribes and served jail time (2018-19), although his conviction was overturned in early 2021. LULA's revival became complete in October 2022 when he narrowly defeated incumbent Jair BOLSONARO (2019-2022) in the presidential election.


Environment - current issues

deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Protocol

Population below poverty line

4.2% (2016 est.)

note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)

Exports - commodities

iron, soybeans, crude petroleum, sugar, poultry meats (2021)

Exports - partners

China 28%, United States 13% (2019)

Administrative divisions

26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Agricultural products

sugar cane, soybeans, maize, milk, cassava, oranges, poultry, rice, beef, cotton

Military and security forces

Brazilian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Brasileiras): Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation (Aviacao Naval Brasileira) and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2024)

note: Brazil's Federal Police are under the Minister of Justice and Public Security

Budget

revenues: $424.196 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $617.332 billion (2020 est.)

Capital

name: Brasília

geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

etymology: name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, vehicle parts, crude petroleum, integrated circuits, pesticides (2019)

Climate

mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Coastline

7,491 km

Constitution

history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988

amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2022

Exchange rates

reals (BRL) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
5.394 (2021 est.)
5.155 (2020 est.)
3.944 (2019 est.)
3.654 (2018 est.)
3.191 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a single consecutive term and additional terms after at least one term has elapsed); election last held on 2 October 2022 with runoff on 30 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:
2022: Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 48.4%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 43.2%, Simone Nassar TEBET (MDB) 4.2%, Ciro GOMES (PDT) 3%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 50.9%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 49.1%

2018:
Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

Illicit drugs

a significant drug transit and destination country for cocaine bound for Europe and other destinations including the United States; domestic drug use and addiction is a significant problem and it is second only to the United States in cocaine consumption; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


Independence

7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

Industries

textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system

Land boundaries

total: 16,145 km

border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km; Bolivia 3,403 km; Colombia 1,790 km; French Guiana 649 km; Guyana 1,308 km; Paraguay 1,371 km; Peru 2,659 km; Suriname 515 km; Uruguay 1,050 km; Venezuela 2,137 km

Land use

agricultural land: 32.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.9% (2018 est.)

other: 5.2% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of:
Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Federal Senate - last held on 2 October 2022 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held on 4 October 2026 for two-thirds of the seats)

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:
Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 13, Brazil Union 12, MBD 10, PSD 10, PT 9, Progressistas 7, Podemos 6, PSDB 4, Republicans 3, PDT 2, Cidadania 1, PSB 1, PSC 1, PROS 1, REDE 1; composition - men 66, women 15, percent of women 18.5% 

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 99, PT 67, Brazil Union 59, PP 47, MDB 42, PSD 42, Republicans 41, PDT 17, PSB 14, PSDB 13, Podemos 12, PSOL 12, Avante 7, PCdoB 6, PSC 6, PV 6, Cidadania 5, Patriota 4, PROS 4, SD 4, NOVO 3, REDE 2, PTB 1; composition - men 423, women 90, percent of women 17.5%; note - total National Congress percent of women 17.7%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.3%

male: 94.1%

female: 94.5% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

International organization participation

AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Nationality

noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

Natural resources

alumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Geography - note

note 1: largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguaçu Falls (Iguazú Falls), the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

note 2: cassava (manioc) the sixth most important food crop in the world - after maize, rice, wheat, potatoes, and soybeans - seems to have originated in the west-central part of Brazil; pineapples are probably indigenous to the southern Brazil-Paraguay region

note 3: Rocas Atoll, located off the northeast coast of Brazil, is the only atoll in the South Atlantic
Rocas Atoll
Rocas Atoll. This photograph, acquired on 21 November 2019, was taken by an astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS), shows the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean. Rocas Atoll is part of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, located approximately 260 kilometers (160 miles) off the northeastern coast of Brazil. This image clearly captures the defining boundary between the outer algal ridge, the open ocean, and the sandy bottom closer to the atoll’s center. An atoll is usually a circular or oval-shaped reef structure with a lagoon in the center. These structures typically form around a volcanic island that has subsided while the coral continues to grow upward. This photograph, acquired on November 21, 2019, was taken by an astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS), shows the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean. Rocas Atoll is part of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, located approximately 260 kilometers (160 miles) off the northeastern coast of Brazil. This image clearly captures the defining boundary between the outer algal ridge, the open ocean, and the sandy bottom closer to the atoll’s center. An atoll is usually a circular or oval-shaped reef structure with a lagoon in the center. These structures typically form around a volcanic island that has subsided while the coral continues to grow upward. Photo courtesy of NASA.

Economic overview

industrial-led economic growth model; recovering from 2014-2016 recession when COVID-19 hit; industry limited by Amazon rainforest but increasing deforestation; new macroeconomic structural reforms; high income inequality; left UNASUR to join PROSUR

Pipelines

5,959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11,696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1,985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)

Political parties and leaders

Act (Agir) [Daniel TOURINHO] (formerly Christian Labor Party or PTC)
Avante [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB)
Brazil Union (União Brasil); note - founded from a merger between the Democrats (DEM) and the Social Liberal Party (PSL) 
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Astrogildo PEREIRA]
Brazilian Democratic Movement or MDB [Luiz Felipe Baleia TENUTO Rossi]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Kassyo Santos RAMOS]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Júlio Cezar FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Bruno Cavalcanti de ARAÚJO]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Democracy or DC [José Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social
Cidadania [Roberto João Pereira FREIRE] (formerly Popular Socialist Party or PPS)
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Luciana SANTOS]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Ciro FERREIRA Gomes]
Democratic Party or PSDC
Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL); note - dissolved in February 2022
Green Party or PV [José Luiz PENNA]
Liberal Party or PL [Valdemar Costa Neto] (formerly Party of the Republic or PR)
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Antonio Carlos Bosco MASSAROLLO]
New Party or NOVO [Eduardo RIBEIRO]
Patriota [Ovasco RESENDE] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN)
Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN)
Progressive Party (Progressistas) or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA Lima Filho]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Republicans (Republicanos) [Marcos Antônio PEREIRA] (formerly Brazilian Republican Party or PRB)
Social Christian Party or PSC [Everaldo Dias PEREIRA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Alfredo COATIT Neto]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Juliano MEDEIROS]
Solidarity or SD [Paulinho DA FORÇA]
Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [José Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi Helena HOFFMANN]


Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Belem, Itajai, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao

oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Itajai (1,610,092), Paranagua (1,044,157), Santos (4,442,876) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero

river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)

dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao

Suffrage

voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America with healthy competition and pricing; 5G services was provided to all capital cities in July 2022, as well as about 35,500km of the national highway network; the country also has one of the largest fixed line broadband markets in Latin America, though broadband subscriptions is only slightly above the regional average, trailing behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; amendments to the licensing regime adopted in October 2019 also require that ISPs which have switched to authorizations invest money saved from lighter regulations in the expansion of broadband services; the fixed line broadband market has seen rapid growth for a number of years, with a growing focus on fiber broadband; in 2019 the number of fiber accesses overtook DSL connections; the country is a key landing point for a number of important submarine cables connecting to the US, Central and South America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa; several new cable systems are due to come into service through to 2022, which will increase bandwidth and push down broadband prices for end-users; investments have also been made into terrestrial fiber cables between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile (2022)

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at roughly 13 per 100 persons;  mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 102 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Government type

federal presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: República Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil

etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye

Location

Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Map references

South America

Irrigated land

69,029 sq km (2017)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro VIOTTI (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

email address and website:
ambassador.dc@itamaraty.gov.br

https://www.gov.br/mre/pt-br/embaixada-washington

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC

Internet country code

.br

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 449,678 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay) (2023)

IDPs: 5,600 (2022)

stateless persons: 12 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,877,942,000,000 (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB (2023)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

8.65 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2022)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA

note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Brazil. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

22.620 million São Paulo, 13.728 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.248 million Belo Horizonte, 4.873 million BRASÍLIA (capital), 4.264 million Recife, 4.212 million Porto Alegre (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

2.31 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue

Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.


Contraceptive prevalence rate

80.5% (2019)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.1

youth dependency ratio: 29.4

elderly dependency ratio: 13.7

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Population distribution

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of São Paolo, Brasília, and Rio de Janeiro

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.4% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 99.7% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 97.3% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,109,977 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,845,650,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

PP

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.1% of population

rural: 63.6% of population

total: 90.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population

rural: 36.4% of population

total: 9.8% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

White 47.7%, mixed 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 50%, Evangelical 31%, Spiritist 3%, Umbanda, Candomble, or other Afro-Brazilian religions 2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist 1%, other 2%, none 10% (2020 est.)

Languages

Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Brazilian Portuguese audio sample

Imports - partners

China 21%, United States 18%, Germany 6%, Argentina 6% (2019)

Disputes - international

Brazil-Bolivia: the Roboré Accord of March 29, 1958 placed the long-disputed Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Río Mamoré, between the two towns of Guajará-Mirim (Brazil) and Guayaramerin (Bolivia), under Bolivian administration but did not resolve the sovereignty dispute

Brazil-Colombia:
contraband smuggling (narcotics and arms), illegal migration, trafficking in animals, plants, lumber, illegal exploitation of mineral resources, and incursions by Colombian insurgent/narco-terrorists groups in the area remain problematic issues

Brazil-Uruguay:
the uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Arroyo de la Invernada triangle and sovereignty over Isla Brasilera leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border

Brazil-Venezuela: Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela; more than 500,000 Venezuelan migrants have entered Brazil since March 2018, with more than 16,000 Venezuelans arriving monthly in the latter half of 2023; in 2023, Brazil shifted military resources to northern Roraima state in response to heightened tensions between Venezuela and Guyana over the disputed Essequibo region of Guyana


Elevation

highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 320 m

Current health expenditure

10.3% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Brazilian Armed Forces (BAF) are the second largest military in the Western Hemisphere behind the US; they are responsible for external security and protecting the country's sovereignty; the BAF’s missions include patrolling and protecting the country’s long borders and coastline and extensive territorial waters and river network, assisting with internal security, providing domestic disaster response and humanitarian assistance, and participating in multinational peacekeeping missions

the Army has a considerable internal security role; in the past decade, it has mobilized thousands of troops to conduct counternarcotics operations, support the police in combating crime, assist with disease outbreaks and humanitarian missions, and provide security for major events such as the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics; it has also cooperated with neighboring countries such as Argentina and Paraguay on border security to combat smuggling and trafficking; the Army is organized into regional commands, military regions, and geographically based divisions covering the entirety of the country; it has approximately 30 combat brigades which include light, mechanized, or motorized infantry, light armored/cavalry, special operations, artillery, and helicopter forces; many of the light infantry brigades are specialized for air mobile, airborne, jungle, mountain, or urban warfare operations; the Army has established a battalion-sized (1,000 troops) expeditionary force for foreign international missions that it plans to increase to a 3,000-strong brigade by 2030

the Navy conducts coastal, regional, and riverine operations and has a wide variety of missions ranging from sea patrolling and power projection to countering piracy, illegal fishing, narcotics trafficking, and organized crime; it is organized into nine districts covering the entirety of the country; the Navy’s principal warships include frigates, corvettes, and offshore patrol ships, attack submarines, and a multi-purpose helicopter landing platform (LPH) amphibious assault ship that serves as the fleet’s flagship; it also has a considerable coastal and riverine patrol vessel fleet, an aviation wing with combat aircraft and helicopters, and a marine amphibious force

the Air Force has over 100 fighter and ground attack aircraft, as well as dozens of support aircraft and helicopters for missions such as patrolling, reconnaissance, transport, logistics, special missions, and training

the three national police forces – the Federal Police, Federal Highway Police, and Federal Railway Police – have domestic security responsibilities and report to the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Ministry of Justice); there are two distinct units within the state police forces: the civil police, which performs an investigative role, and the military police, charged with maintaining law and order in the states and the Federal District; despite the name, military police forces report to the Ministry of Justice, not the Ministry of Defense; the National Public Security Force (Forca Nacional de Seguranca Publica or SENASP) is a national police force made up of Military Police from various states

Brazil has Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation

the origins of Brazil's military stretch back to the 1640s; Brazil provided a 25,000-man expeditionary force with air and ground units to fight with the Allies in the Mediterranean Theater during World War II; the Navy participated in the Battle of the Atlantic (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 360,000 active military personnel (220,000 Army; 70,000 Navy; 70,000 Air Force); approximately 400,000 paramilitary security forces (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Brazilian military's inventory consists of a mix of domestically produced and imported weapons, largely from Europe and the US; in recent years, the US and several European countries have been the leading suppliers of military equipment to Brazil; Brazil's defense industry designs and manufactures equipment for all three military services and for export; it also jointly produces equipment with other countries (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 16.13 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 9.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 41.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 79,889,010 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,118,446 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 1.4% (2014 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 15.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1.5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.94 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 462.3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 401.83 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 23 (15 cultural, 7 natural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Brasilia (c); Historic Salvador de Bahia (c); Historic Ouro Preto (c); Historic Olinda (c); Iguaçu National Park (n); Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis (c); Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes (c); Central Amazon Conservation Complex (n); Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves (n); Paraty and Ilha Grande – Culture and Biodiversity (m)

Major aquifers

Amazon Basin, Guarani Aquifer System, Maranhao Basin

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 sq km), Orinoco (953,675 sq km), Paraná (2,582,704 sq km), São Francisco (617,814 sq km), Tocantins (764,213 sq km)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lagoa dos Patos - 10,140 sq km

salt water lake(s): Lagoa Mirim (shared with Uruguay) - 2,970 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Amazon river mouth (shared with Peru [s]) - 6,400 km; Río de la Plata/Paraná river source (shared with Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Tocantins - 3,650 km; São Francisco - 3,180 km; Paraguay river source (shared with Argentina and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Rio Negro river mouth (shared with Colombia [s] and Venezuela) - 2,250 km; Uruguay river source (shared with Argentina and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Coal

production: 13.993 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 31.841 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 16,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 19.217 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 6.596 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 11.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 9.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 65.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 9.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 25,395,979,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 35,253,198,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 9,724,017,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 363.984 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 3,629,100 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 3,142,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,123,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 186,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12,714,600,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Hizballah (2022)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

55.9% (2023 est.)

Remittances

0.25% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.25% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.17% of GDP (2019 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 2 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 1

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.88GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 2.5% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 1% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Space program overview

has an active program with a long history, although it has been hampered by inconsistent funding; develops, builds, operates, and tracks satellites, including communications, remote sensing (RS), multi-mission, navigational, and scientific/testing/research; satellites are launched by foreign partners, but Brazil has a long-standing sounding (research) rocket and space launch vehicle (SLV) program and rocket launch facilities; cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and commercial entities, including those of Argentina, Canada, the European Space Agency and individual member states (particularly France and Germany), India, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Ukraine, and the US; has a state-controlled communications company that operates Brazil’s communications satellites and a growing commercial space sector with expertise in satellite technology (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

Brazilian Space Agency (Agência Espacial Brasileira, AEB; established in 1994 when Brazil’s space program was transferred from the military to civilian control); National Institute for Space Research (established, 1971; part of the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovations); Space Operations Command (Armed Forces); Department of Aerospace Science and Technology (DCTA; established in 1953 as a military space research program under the Brazilian Air Force)  (2023)

Space launch site(s)

Alcantara Launch Site (Maranhão state); Barreira do Inferno Launch Center (Rio Grande do Norte state) (2023)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 5

global geoparks and regional networks: Araripe; Cacapava; Quarta Colonia; Serido; Southern Canyons Pathways (2023)

Labor force

99.47 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 31.9% (2021 est.)

male: 27%

female: 38.2%

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 34.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 33.6 years

female: 35.7 years

Debt - external

$681.336 billion (2019 est.)
$660.693 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

72 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$362.21 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$355.614 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$356.886 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Waterways

50,000 km (2012) (most in areas remote from industry and population)

Refined petroleum products - imports

490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

100.59% of GDP (2020 est.)
92.57% of GDP (2019 est.)
86.61% of GDP (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.75 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

14.4% (2021 est.)
13.69% (2020 est.)
11.93% (2019 est.)

Population

218,689,757 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 170.1 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

456.67 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 63.53 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 328.824 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 64.316 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 8,515,770 sq km

land: 8,358,140 sq km

water: 157,630 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Taxes and other revenues

12.96% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.128 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.989 trillion (2020 est.)
$3.11 trillion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 2 million km

paved: 246,000 km

unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)

Infant mortality rate

total: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 219,660,524 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

48.9 (2020 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

8.3% (2021 est.)
3.21% (2020 est.)
3.73% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$27.925 billion (2021 est.)
-$24.492 billion (2020 est.)
-$65.03 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,600 (2021 est.)
$14,000 (2020 est.)
$14,700 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 36,344,670 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 12.8% (2020 est.)

male: 16.2% (2020 est.)

female: 9.4% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.1% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

59.444 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

13.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 195.037 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 540,997,340,000 kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 395 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 25.113 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 105.727 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 888 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 13, container ship 20, general cargo 38, oil tanker 27, other 790

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$297.924 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$227.854 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$269.017 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$317.175 billion (2021 est.)
$239.283 billion (2020 est.)
$260.075 billion (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 27,257,833 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.12 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.6 years

female: 79.8 years

Real GDP growth rate

4.62% (2021 est.)
-3.88% (2020 est.)
1.22% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

4.48% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 29,849.9 km (2014)

standard gauge: 194 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km (2014) 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified)

broad gauge: 5,822.3 km (2014) 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)

dual gauge: 492 km (2014) 1.600-1.000-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)

services: 72.7% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.62% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

6% of GDP (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.64% (2023 est.)

Airports

4,919 (2024)