Bhutan - BT - BTN - BHU - South Asia

Last updated: March 19, 2024
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Bhutan Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none; frequent informal contact is maintained via the US embassy in New Delhi (India) and Bhutan's Permanent Mission to the UN

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.49% (male 105,317/female 100,526)

15-64 years: 69.97% (male 318,732/female 294,292)

65 years and over: 6.54% (2023 est.) (male 29,582/female 27,732)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Bhutan. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

27 30 N, 90 30 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana
Area comparison map

slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana


Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription; militia training is compulsory for males aged 20-25, over a 3-year period  (2023)

note: in 2021, the Royal Bhutan Army graduated from a year-long training course the first batch of 150 women to be allowed to serve in combat roles; previously, women were allowed to serve in medical and other non-combat roles

Background

Following Britain’s victory in the 1865 Duar War, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding land to British India. Ugyen WANGCHUCK - who had served as the de facto ruler of an increasingly unified Bhutan and had improved relations with the British toward the end of the 19th century - was named king in 1907. Three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs, and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. Bhutan negotiated a similar arrangement with independent India in 1949. The Indo-Bhutanese Treaty of Friendship returned to Bhutan a small piece of the territory annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. Under a succession of modernizing monarchs beginning in the 1950s, Bhutan joined the UN in 1971 and slowly continued its engagement beyond its borders.

In 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the draft of Bhutan's first constitution - which introduced major democratic reforms - and held a national referendum for its approval. The King abdicated the throne in 2006 in favor of his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK. In 2007, India and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty, eliminating the clause that stated that Bhutan would be "guided by" India in conducting its foreign policy, although Thimphu continues to coordinate closely with New Delhi. In 2008, Bhutan held its first parliamentary election in accordance with the constitution. Bhutan experienced a peaceful turnover of power following a parliamentary election in 2013, which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent party. In 2018, the incumbent party again lost the parliamentary election. in 2024, of the more than 100,000 ethnic Nepali - predominantly Lhotshampa - refugees who fled or were forced out of Bhutan in the 1990s, about 6,500 remain displaced in Nepal.


Environment - current issues

soil erosion; limited access to potable water; wildlife conservation; industrial pollution; waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Population below poverty line

8.2% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 30.6% (2012)

Exports - commodities

iron alloys, dolomite, aircraft, cement, gypsum (2021)

Exports - partners

India 94% (2019)

Administrative divisions

20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Dagana, Gasa, Haa, Lhuentse, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatshel, Punakha, Samdrup Jongkhar, Samtse, Sarpang, Thimphu, Trashigang, Trashi Yangtse, Trongsa, Tsirang, Wangdue Phodrang, Zhemgang

Agricultural products

milk, rice, maize, potatoes, roots/tubers, oranges, areca nuts, chillies/peppers, spices, ginger

Military and security forces

Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and an air wing); National Militia

Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs: Royal Bhutan Police (2023)

Budget

revenues: $710 million (2020 est.)

expenditures: $777 million (2020 est.)

note: the Government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Capital

name: Thimphu

geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 38 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the origins of the name are unclear; the traditional explanation, dating to the 14th century, is that thim means "dissolve" and phu denotes "high ground" to express the meaning of "dissolving high ground," in reference to a local deity that dissolved before a traveler's eyes, becoming a part of the rock on which the present city stands

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron products, delivery trucks, cars, wood charcoal (2019)

Climate

varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Constitution

history: previous governing documents were various royal decrees; first constitution drafted November 2001 to March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008

amendments: proposed as a motion by simple majority vote in a joint session of Parliament; passage requires at least a three-fourths majority vote in a joint session of the next Parliament and assent by the king

Exchange rates

ngultrum (BTN) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
73.939 (2021 est.)
74.1 (2020 est.)
70.42 (2019 est.)
68.389 (2018 est.)
65.122 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son

head of government: Prime Minister Tshering TOBGAY (since 28 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-thirds vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Flag description

divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side; the dragon, called the Druk (Thunder Dragon), is the emblem of the nation; its white color stands for purity and the jewels in its claws symbolize wealth; the background colors represent spiritual and secular powers within Bhutan: the orange is associated with Buddhism, while the yellow denotes the ruling dynasty

Independence

17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king); 8 August 1949 (Treaty of Friendship with India maintains Bhutanese independence)

Industries

cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 associate justices); note - the Supreme Court has sole jurisdiction in constitutional matters

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the National Judicial Commission, a 4-member body to include the Legislative Committee of the National Assembly, the attorney general, the Chief Justice of Bhutan and the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; other judges (drangpons) appointed by the monarch from among the High Court judges selected by the National Judicial Commission; chief justice serves a 5-year term or until reaching age 65 years, whichever is earlier; the 4 other judges serve 10-year terms or until age 65, whichever is earlier

subordinate courts: High Court (first appellate court); District or Dzongkhag Courts; sub-district or Dungkhag Courts

Land boundaries

total: 1,136 km

border countries (2): China 477 km; India 659 km

Land use

agricultural land: 13.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 85.5% (2018 est.)

other: 0.9% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law based on Buddhist religious law

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Chi Tshog consists of:
non-partisan National Council or Gyelyong Tshogde (25 seats; 20 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 members appointed by the king; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly or Tshogdu (47 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies in a two-round system; in the primary round, contesting political parties are directly selected by simple majority vote; in the main round, the two top parties in the primary round field candidates who are directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
 


elections:
National Council - last held on 20 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

National Assembly - first round held on 30 November 2023 with a runoff on 9 January 2024 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
National Council - seats by party - independent 20 (all candidates ran as independents) and 5 appointed by the king; composition as of October 2023 - men 22, women 3, percent of women 12%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party in first round - PDP 42.5%, BTP 19.6%, DPT 14.9%, DNT 13.1% DTT 9.8%; percent of vote in second round - PDP 55%, BTP 45%; seats by party PDP 30, BTP 17; composition as of January 2024 - men 45, women 2, percent of women 4.3%; note - total percent of women in Parliament 6.9%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.9%

male: 77.9%

female: 62.8% (2021)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation

ADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

National holiday

National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)

Nationality

noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Economic overview

hydropower investments spurring economic development; Gross National Happiness economy; sharp poverty declines; low inflation; strong monetary and fiscal policies; stable currency; fairly resilient response to COVID-19; key economic and strategic relations with India; climate vulnerabilities

Political parties and leaders

Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Dorji WANGDI]
Bhutan Tendrel Party or BTP (Pema CHEWANG)
Druk Thuendrel Tshogpa or DTT [Kinga TSHERING]
People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
United Party of Bhutan (Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa) or DNT [Lotay TSHERING]


Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the small land-locked Kingdom of Bhutan has only recently emerged from decades of isolation from the modern world; that, and its mountainous terrain, left the country far back in the field in terms of teledensity as well as access to the Internet; over the last decade, the country has undergone a significant transformation due to the opening of its borders, liberalization of its telecom sector, and the active support from the government towards increased competition in the mobile, broadband, and ISP segments; the relatively widespread availability of the mobile platform has caused an explosion in mobile broadband subscriber numbers, growing from zero to over 100% penetration in just ten years (between 2010 and 2019).; the onset of the Covid-19 crisis in 2020 caused the subscription rates to drop back a little; growth is projected to return in 2022 (along with the broader mobile market) as the overall economy recovers; the government opens up more to foreign investment, trade, and tourism; and network expansion continues – the recent (December 2021) launch of 5G services by both of the country’s mobile operators being particularly noteworthy (2022)

domestic: approximately 3 to 100 fixed-line and 100 mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people (2021)

international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat

Terrain

mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form: Bhutan

local long form: Druk Gyalkhap

local short form: Druk Yul

etymology: named after the Bhotia, the ethnic Tibetans who migrated from Tibet to Bhutan; "Bod" is the Tibetan name for their land; the Bhutanese name "Druk Yul" means "Land of the Thunder Dragon"

Location

Southern Asia, between China and India

Map references

Asia

Irrigated land

320 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Phuntsho NORBU (since October 2022)
note - also the Deputy Permanent Representative to the UN

telephone: [1] (212) 682-2268

FAX: [1] (212) 661-0551

email address and website:
consulate.pmbny@mfa.gov.bt

https://www.mfa.gov.bt/pmbny/

consulate(s) general: New York

embassy: 343 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017

note - the Permanent Mission to the UN for Bhutan has consular jurisdiction in the US

Internet country code

.bt

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.405 billion (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

78 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2018)

Urbanization

urban population: 44.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.52% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-owned TV station established in 1999; cable TV service offers dozens of Indian and other international channels; first radio station, privately launched in 1973, is now state-owned; 5 private radio stations are currently broadcasting (2012)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Druk tsendhen" (The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)

lyrics/music: Gyaldun Dasho Thinley DORJI/Aku TONGMI

note: adopted 1953

Major urban areas - population

203,000 THIMPHU (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

0.5 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)

National symbol(s)

thunder dragon known as Druk Gyalpo; national colors: orange, yellow

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 58% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 47.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 26% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.7

youth dependency ratio: 32.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.6

potential support ratio: 11.1 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 275,849 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 690,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

A5

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 90.8% of population

rural: 83.1% of population

total: 86.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 9.2% of population

rural: 16.9% of population

total: 13.6% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Ngalop (also known as Bhote) 50%, ethnic Nepali 35% (predominantly Lhotshampas), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions

Lamaistic Buddhist 75.3%, Indian- and Nepali-influenced Hinduism 22.1%, other 2.6% (2005 est.)

Languages

Sharchopkha 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)

Imports - partners

India 85%, Thailand 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

Bhutan-China: lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient

Bhutan-India: none identified


Elevation

highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m

lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m

mean elevation: 2,220 m

Current health expenditure

4.4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Army is responsible for external threats but also has some internal security functions such as conducting counterinsurgency operations, guarding forests, and providing security for prominent persons; the force is deployed throughout the country in more than a dozen “wings,” each comprised of a few infantry companies; the Army also has units of royal bodyguards and special forces; Bhutan relies on India for military training, arms supplies, and the country’s air defense (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimated 8,000 active personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

India has provided most of the Royal Bhutan Army's equipment (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

agricultural: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 111,314 tons (2007 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 957 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.9% (2016 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 26.1 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 1.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 1.11 megatons (2020 est.)

Heliports

8 (2024)

Coal

production: 174,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 211,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 37,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 4,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.86 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

62.8% (2023 est.)

Remittances

3.59% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.23% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.38% of GDP (2018 est.)

Space program overview

has a small, recently established program focused on acquiring satellites and developing the capabilities to manufacture satellites; cooperates with India (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

announced in 2018 that it intends to establish a space agency, but has not yet done so (2023)

Labor force

361,000 (2021 est.)

note: major shortage of skilled labor

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.8% (2021 est.)

male: 15.6%

female: 22%

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 30.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 30.6 years

female: 29.8 years

Debt - external

$2.671 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

60 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.056 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.473 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.238 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

3,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

117.33% of GDP (2020 est.)
97.49% of GDP (2019 est.)
101.19% of GDP (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.77 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.33% (2021 est.)
3.65% (2020 est.)
2.5% (2019 est.)

Population

876,181 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 670,800 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

934,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 328,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 606,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 38,394 sq km

land: 38,394 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

12.98% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$8.481 billion (2021 est.)
$8.148 billion (2020 est.)
$9.054 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 12,205 km (2017)

urban: 437 km

Airports

4 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 778,008 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

37.4 (2017 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.35% (2021 est.)
5.63% (2020 est.)
2.73% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$321.535 million (2021 est.)
-$381.153 million (2020 est.)
-$500.802 million (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$10,900 (2021 est.)
$10,500 (2020 est.)
$11,800 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,189 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.4 (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.4% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

100.135 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

15.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 2.334 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.315 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 4.6 billion kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 22.85 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 60 million kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$1.027 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.188 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.23 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$741.602 million (2021 est.)
$786.681 million (2020 est.)
$777.529 million (2019 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 19,566 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73 years (2023 est.)

male: 71.8 years

female: 74.3 years

Real GDP growth rate

4.09% (2021 est.)
-10.01% (2020 est.)
5.76% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

1.96% (2021 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 41.8% (2017 est.)

services: 42% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

1.89% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

7% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.96% (2023 est.)