- Introduction :: Botswana
- Background:Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI assumed the presidency in April 2018 following the retirement of former President Ian KHAMA due to constitutional term limits. MASISI is Botswana’s fifth president since independence. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
- Geography :: Botswana
- Location:Southern Africa, north of South AfricaGeographic coordinates:22 00 S, 24 00 EMap references:AfricaArea:total: 581,730 sq kmland: 566,730 sq kmwater: 15,000 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 49Area - comparative:slightly smaller than TexasLand boundaries:total: 4,347.15 kmborder countries (4): Namibia 1544 km, South Africa 1969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:semiarid; warm winters and hot summersTerrain:predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwestElevation:mean elevation: 1,013 mlowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 mhighest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 mNatural resources:diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silverLand use:agricultural land: 45.8% (2011 est.)arable land: 0.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 45.2% (2011 est.)forest: 19.8% (2011 est.)other: 34.4% (2011 est.)Irrigated land:20 sq km (2012)Population distribution:the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the westNatural hazards:periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibilityEnvironment - current issues:overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollutionEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
- People and Society :: Botswana
- Population:2,249,104 (July 2018 est.)
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expectedcountry comparison to the world: 144Nationality:noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)Ethnic groups:Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%Languages:Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)Religions:Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)Demographic profile:
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.Age structure:0-14 years: 31.48% (male 357,175 /female 350,775)15-24 years: 18.7% (male 207,611 /female 212,874)25-54 years: 38.88% (male 412,475 /female 462,013)55-64 years: 5.61% (male 53,653 /female 72,617)65 years and over: 5.33% (male 51,304 /female 68,607) (2018 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 55.1 (2015 est.)youth dependency ratio: 49.3 (2015 est.)elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)Median age:total: 24.9 yearsmale: 23.8 yearsfemale: 26 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 158Population growth rate:1.52% (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 71Birth rate:21.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 70Death rate:9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 48Net migration rate:3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 39Population distribution:the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the westUrbanization:urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)Major urban areas - population:269,000 GABORONE (capital) (2018)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.74 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2018 est.)Maternal mortality rate:129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 65Infant mortality rate:total: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 31.2 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 65Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.8 yearsmale: 61.8 yearsfemale: 66 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Total fertility rate:2.53 children born/woman (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Health expenditures:5.4% of GDP (2014)country comparison to the world: 129Physicians density:0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2016)Hospital bed density:1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved: urban: 99.2% of populationrural: 92.3% of populationtotal: 96.2% of populationunimproved: urban: 0.8% of populationrural: 7.7% of populationtotal: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved: urban: 78.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 43.1% of population (2015 est.)total: 63.4% of population (2015 est.)unimproved: urban: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 56.9% of population (2015 est.)total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:22.8% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 3HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:380,000 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 19HIV/AIDS - deaths:4,100 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: high (2016)food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)vectorborne diseases: malaria (2016)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:18.9% (2016)country comparison to the world: 114Education expenditures:9.6% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 5Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)total population: 88.5%male: 88%female: 88.9% (2015 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 13 years (2013)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 36%male: 29.6%female: 43.5% (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 18
- Government :: Botswana
- Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Botswanaconventional short form: Botswanalocal long form: Republic of Botswanalocal short form: Botswanaformer: Bechuanalandetymology: the name Botswana means "Land of the Tswana" - referring to the country's major ethnic groupGovernment type:parliamentary republicCapital:name: Gaboronegeographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 Etime difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)etymology: named after Gaborone, a revered kgosi (chief) of the Tlokwa tribe, part of the larger Tswana ethnic groupAdministrative divisions:10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*Independence:30 September 1966 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)Constitution:history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)Legal system:mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionCitizenship:citizenship by birth: nocitizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswanadual citizenship recognized: noresidency requirement for naturalization: 10 yearsSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of governmentcabinet: Cabinet appointed by the presidentelections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the presidentelection results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became presidentLegislative branch:description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 4 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendmentselections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3; composition - men 57, women 6, percent of women 9.5%Judicial branch:highest courts: Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's CourtPolitical parties and leaders:Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Sidney PILANE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Real Alternative Party or RAP [Gaontebale MOKGOSI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (various times the collation has included the BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF) (2019)International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036telephone:  (202) 244-4990FAX:  (202) 244-4164consulate(s) general: AtlantaDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaboronemailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaboronetelephone:  395-3982FAX:  318-0232Flag description:light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmonyNational symbol(s):zebra; national colors: blue, white, blackNational anthem:name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966
- Economy :: Botswana
- Economy - overview:
Until the beginning of the global recession in 2008, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since its independence in 1966. Botswana recovered from the global recession in 2010, but only grew modestly until 2017, primarily due to a downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world five decades ago into a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,100 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.
Because of its heavy reliance on diamond exports, Botswana’s economy closely follows global price trends for that one commodity. Diamond mining fueled much of Botswana’s past economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. In 2017, Diamond exports increased to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth to about 4.5% and increasing foreign exchange reserves to about 45% of GDP. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.
Tourism is a secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains.GDP (purchasing power parity):$39.01 billion (2017 est.)$38.11 billion (2016 est.)$36.54 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollarscountry comparison to the world: 121GDP (official exchange rate):$17.38 billion (2017 est.)GDP - real growth rate:2.4% (2017 est.)4.3% (2016 est.)-1.7% (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 137GDP - per capita (PPP):$17,000 (2017 est.)$16,900 (2016 est.)$16,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollarscountry comparison to the world: 101Gross national saving:40.3% of GDP (2017 est.)38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)41.2% of GDP (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 9GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 48.5% (2017 est.)government consumption: 18.4% (2017 est.)investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)investment in inventories: -1.8% (2017 est.)exports of goods and services: 39.8% (2017 est.)imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2017 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)industry: 27.5% (2017 est.)services: 70.6% (2017 est.)Agriculture - products:livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnutsIndustries:diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textilesIndustrial production growth rate:-4.2% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 193Labor force:1.177 million (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: NAindustry: NAservices: NAUnemployment rate:20% (2013 est.)17.8% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 185Population below poverty line:19.3% (2009 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:60.5 (2009)63 (1993)country comparison to the world: 5Budget:revenues: 5.305 billion (2017 est.)expenditures: 5.478 billion (2017 est.)Taxes and other revenues:30.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Public debt:14% of GDP (2017 est.)15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 195Fiscal year:1 April - 31 MarchInflation rate (consumer prices):3.3% (2017 est.)2.8% (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Central bank discount rate:5.5% (31 December 2016)6% (31 December 2015)country comparison to the world: 74Commercial bank prime lending rate:6.88% (31 December 2017 est.)7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Stock of narrow money:$1.645 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$1.494 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 140Stock of broad money:$1.645 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$1.494 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 148Stock of domestic credit:$3.002 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$2.579 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 140Current account balance:$2.146 billion (2017 est.)$2.147 billion (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 40Exports:$5.934 billion (2017 est.)$7.226 billion (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Exports - partners:Belgium 20.3%, India 12.6%, UAE 12.4%, South Africa 11.9%, Singapore 8.7%, Israel 7%, Hong Kong 4.1%, Namibia 4.1% (2017)Exports - commodities:diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textilesImports:$5.005 billion (2017 est.)$5.871 billion (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal productsImports - partners:South Africa 66.1%, Canada 8.3%, Israel 5.3% (2017)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$7.491 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Debt - external:$2.187 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$5.319 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$5.699 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 106Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.973 billion (31 December 2017 est.)$1.312 billion (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 84Exchange rates:pulas (BWP) per US dollar -10.19 (2017 est.)10.9022 (2016 est.)10.9022 (2015 est.)10.1263 (2014 est.)8.9761 (2013 est.)
- Energy :: Botswana
- Electricity access:population without electricity: 700,000 (2013)electrification - total population: 66% (2013)electrification - urban areas: 75% (2013)electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)Electricity - production:2.527 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Electricity - consumption:3.636 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 109Electricity - imports:1.673 billion kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Electricity - installed generating capacity:735,000 kW (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 4Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 54Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 159Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 178Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 97Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 100Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 110Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Refined petroleum products - consumption:21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Refined petroleum products - imports:21,090 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 73Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 95Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 114Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:6.235 million Mt (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 127
- Communications :: Botswana
- Telephones - fixed lines:total subscriptions: 141,207 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 132Telephones - mobile cellular:total subscriptions: 3,240,589 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Telephone system:general assessment:
effective regulatory reform has turned the Botswana's telecom market into one of the most liberalised in the region; Botswana has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in Africa; 3 MNOs have entered the underdeveloped broadband sector with the adoption of 3G, LTE and WiMAX technologies; mobile internet remains the preferred choicedomestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has advanced to 150 telephones per 100 personsinternational: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivityBroadcast media:2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)Internet country code:.bwInternet users:total: 869,610 (July 2016 est.)percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Broadband - fixed subscriptions:total: 48,901 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 130
- Transportation :: Botswana
- National air transport system:number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005 (2015)annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:A2 (2016)Airports:74 (2013)country comparison to the world: 70Airports - with paved runways:total: 10 (2017)over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 64 (2013)1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)914 to 1,523 m: 46 (2013)under 914 m: 13 (2013)Railways:total: 888 km (2014)narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)country comparison to the world: 95Roadways:total: 31,747 km (2017)paved: 9,810 km (2017)unpaved: 21,937 km (2017)country comparison to the world: 77
- Military and Security :: Botswana
- Military expenditures:3.37% of GDP (2016)2.66% of GDP (2015)2.13% of GDP (2014)2.06% of GDP (2013)2.23% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 23Military branches:Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)Military service age and obligation:18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
- Transnational Issues :: Botswana
- Disputes - international:
noneTrafficking in persons:current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural westtier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)
BW - Botswana (BWA)
Africa :: Botswana