Cyprus - CY - CYP - CYP - Europe

Last updated: February 20, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Julie D. FISHER (since 21 February 2023)

embassy: Metochiou and Ploutarchou Street, 2407, Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: 5450 Nicosia Place, Washington DC  20521-5450

telephone: [357] (22) 393939

FAX: [357] (22) 780944

email address and website:
ACSNicosia@state.gov

https://cy.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.63% (male 104,950/female 99,515)

15-64 years: 70.36% (male 484,087/female 436,271)

65 years and over: 14.01% (2023 est.) (male 79,897/female 103,400)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Cyprus. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

35 00 N, 33 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Heliports

69 (2024)

Natural hazards

moderate earthquake activity; droughts

People - note

demographic data for Cyprus represent the population of the government-controlled area and the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, unless otherwise indicated

Area - comparative

about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut
Area comparison map

about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut


Military service age and obligation

Cypriot National Guard (CNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 14-month service obligation (2023)

note: the CNG accepts all foreign nationals of at least partial Cypriot descent under age 32 as volunteers; dual citizenship Cypriot origin citizens, who were born in Cyprus or abroad, have the obligation to serve in the CNG on repatriation, regardless of whether or not they possess a foreign citizenship; a person is considered as having Cypriot origin where a grandparent or parent was/is a Cypriot citizen

Background

A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority communities came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued, forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to overthrow the elected president of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot administered area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. An UN-mediated agreement, the Annan Plan, failed to win approval by both communities in 2004. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The most recent round of negotiations to reunify the island were suspended in July 2017 after failure to achieve a breakthrough. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the "TRNC." However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of EU states.

Environment - current issues

water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage, industrial wastes, and pesticides; coastal degradation; erosion; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

14.7% (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 28.8% (2014)

Exports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cheese, recreational boats (2021)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles

Exports - partners

India 9%, Greece 9%, Libya 8%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)

Administrative divisions

6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta; all but a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district located entirely in the Turkish Cypriot community), Larnaka (Larnaca; with a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note - the 5 "districts" of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, pork, sheep milk, goat milk, barley, wheat, poultry, olives, tangerines/mandarins

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - citrus fruit, dairy, potatoes, grapes, olives, poultry, lamb

Military and security forces

Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Froura, EF; includes Army Land Forces, Naval Command, Air Command) (2023)

Budget

revenues: $10.362 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $9.996 billion (2019 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - revenues: $2.5 billion; expenditures: $2.5 billion (est. 2006)

Capital

name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: a mispronunciation of the city's Greek name Lefkosia and its Turkish name Lefkosa, both of which mean "White City"; the Greek name may derive from the Greek phrase "leuke ousia" ("white estate")

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, cars, coal tar oil, packaged medicines (2019)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Climate

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Coastline

648 km

Constitution

history: ratified 16 August 1960; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution

amendments: constitution of the Republic of Cyprus - proposed by the House of Representatives; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the "Greek Community" and the "Turkish Community"; however, all seats of Turkish Cypriot members have remained vacant since 1964; amended many times, last in 2020;
constitution of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” - proposed by at least 10 members of the "Assembly of the Republic"; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and approval by referendum; amended 2014

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on held 5 February 2023 with a runoff on 12 February 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023:
Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (independent) 32%, Andreas MAVROGIIANNIS (independent) 29.6%, Averof NEOFYTOU (DISY) 26.1%, Christos CHRISTOU (ELAM) 6%, other 6.3%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDS 52%, Andreas MAVROGIANNIS 48%

2018:
Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Stavros MALAS 44%

note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the second round was held on 18 October 2020; percent of vote in the first round - Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Ersin TATAR 51.7%, Mustafa AKINCI 48.3%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

centered on a white field is a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two olive-green-colored, crossed olive branches; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Kosovo is the other

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

Illicit drugs

the ROC financial system is vulnerable to money laundering by domestic and foreign criminals; proceeds generated by illicit activity abroad pose a greater threat; primary sources of illicit proceeds are investment fraud, corruption, advance fee fraud, tax evasion, illegal drugs, and tobacco smuggling. Additionally, cybercrime, especially phishing, e-mail hacking, and ransomware use, continues to increase. Criminals have reportedly used ROC banks to launder proceeds, particularly from Russian and Ukrainian illicit activity.

 


Independence

16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey

Industries

tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, ship repair, clay, gypsum, copper, furniture

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges, including the court president); note - the highest court in the "TRNC" is the "Supreme Court" (consists of 8 "judges," including the "court president")

judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges can serve until age 68; "TRNC Supreme Court" judges appointed by the "Supreme Council of Judicature," a 12-member body of judges, the attorney general, appointees by the president of the "TRNC," and by the "Legislative Assembly," and members elected by the bar association; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; Administrative Court; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, the military, and rent control; "TRNC Assize Courts"; "district and family courts"

Land boundaries

total: 156 km

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 48 km; Dhekelia 108 km

Land use

agricultural land: 13.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 18.8% (2018 est.)

other: 67.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms; note - 3 seats each are reserved for the Latin, Maronite, and Armenian religious groups;
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral "Assembly of the Republic" or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote using a hybrid d'Hondt method with voter preference for individual candidates

elections: area under government control; last held on 30 May 2021 (next to be held in 2026); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 23 January 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - DISY 27.8%, AKEL 22.3%, DIKO 11.3%, ELAM 6.8%, EDEK-SP 6.7%, DIPA 6.1%, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 4.4%, other 14.6%; seats by party/coalition - DISY 17, AKEL 15, DIKO 9, ELAM 4, EDEK-SP 4, DIPA 4, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 3; composition - men 48, women 8, percent of women 14.3%; area administered by Turkish Cypriots - "Assembly of the Republic" - percent of vote by party - UBP 39.5%, CTP 32%, DP 7.4%, HP 6.7%, YDP 6.4%, other 8%; seats by party - UBP 24, CTP 18, DP 3, HP 3, YDP 2; composition NA

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.6%

female: 99.2% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation

Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as "Republic Day"

Nationality

noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Geography - note

the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia); several small Cypriot enclaves exist within the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area

Economic overview

services-based, high-income EU island economy; heavy tourism; sustained growth between recovery of national banking system and COVID-19 trade restrictions; high living standards; a known financial hub, its stock exchange functions as an investment bridge between EU-and EEU-member countries

note: Even though the whole of the island is part of the EU, implementation of the EU "acquis communautaire" has been suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, known locally as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, until political conditions permit the reunification of the island. Its market-based economy is roughly one-fifth the size of its southern neighbor and is likewise dominated by the service sector with a large portion of the population employed by the government. Manufacturing is limited mainly to food and beverages, furniture and fixtures, construction materials, metal and non-metal products, textiles and clothing. Little trade exists with the Republic of Cyprus outside of construction, historically relying heavily upon Turkey for financial aid, defense, telecommunications, utilities, and postal services. The Turkish Lira is the preferred currency, though foreign currencies are widely accepted in business transactions.

Political parties and leaders

area under government control:
Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS] (dissolved 2 December 2021)
Democratic Front or DIPA [Marios GAROYIAN]
Democratic Party or DIKO [Nikolas PAPADOPOULOS]
Democratic Rally or DISY [Annita DIMITRIOU]
Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Alliance [Charalambos THEOPEMPTOU]
Movement of Social Democrats EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]
National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]
Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Stefanos STEFANOU]
Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mine ATLI]
Communal Liberation Party - New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI]
Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]
Democratic Party or DP [Fikri ATAOGLU]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU]
National Unity Party or UBP [Faiz SUCUOGLU]
New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]
People's Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY]
Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI]
Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN]
United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Cyprus suffered from the effects of the pandemic in 2020 and 2021, when the tourism sector was essentially closed; during 2022, there were adverse effects caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which has resulted in a dramatic drop in the number of Russian tourists entering the country; the mobile market is served by four mobile network operators; the number of mobile subscribers fell in 2020, largely the result of subscribers scaling back on multiple SIM cards as an economic measure; the broadband market continues to develop steadily, providing the country with one of the highest broadband penetration rates in the region; DSL remains the dominant access platform, accounting for about two-thirds of fixed broadband connections; although fiber infrastructure in Cyprus is minimal (supported by the government and regulator) to extend an FttP service to about 200,000 premises; as a result, the number of DSL subscribers is set to fall steadily in coming years as customers are migrated to the fiber platform (2023)

domestic: fixed-line about 34 per 100 and about 149 per 100 for mobile-cellular teledensity (2021)

international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, CADMOS, MedNautilus Submarine System, POSEIDON, TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medes, UGARIT, Aphrodite2, Hawk, Lev Submarine System, and Tamares combine to provide connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Southeast Asia; Turcyos-1 and Turcyos-2 submarine cable in Turkish North Cyprus link to Turkey; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat) (2019)

Terrain

central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Government type

Republic of Cyprus - presidential republic; self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC) - parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency

note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish military intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of the "TRNC,” which is recognized only by Turkey

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia (Greek)/ Kibris Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)

local short form: Kypros (Greek)/ Kibris (Turkish)

etymology: the derivation of the name "Cyprus" is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word "cuprum" for copper

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" or "TRNC" ("Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti" or "KKTC")

Location

Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey; note - Cyprus views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Map references

Middle East

Irrigated land

268 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Evangelos SAVVA (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

email address and website:
info@cyprusembassy.net

https://www.cyprusembassy.net/

consulate(s) general: New York

honorary consulate(s): Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Kirkland (WA), Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Mustafa LAKADAMYALI; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Internet country code

.cy

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 10,869 (Syria) (mid-year 2022); 18,230 (Ukraine) (as of 12 November 2023)

IDPs: 246,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced since 1974) (2022)

stateless persons: 74 (2022)

note: 55,098 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2023)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.946 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2018)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

780 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 67% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

mixture of state and privately run TV and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and 7 privately owned TV and 21 radio broadcast stations plus 6 radio and 4 TV channels of local universities, plus 1 radio station of military, security forces and 1 radio station of civil defense cooperation, as well as relay stations from Turkey (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.8% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.2% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

Major urban areas - population

269,000 NICOSIA (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.14 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

30 years (2020 est.)

note: data represents only government-controlled areas

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 63.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.8% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.8

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 20.8

potential support ratio: 4.8 (2021 est.)

note: data represent the whole country

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Population distribution

population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 401,408 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 20,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5B

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 98.8% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 1.2% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the Greek-Cypriot citizens in the Republic of Cyprus

Religions

Eastern Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

Languages

Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6%; note - data represent only the Republic of Cyprus (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Το Παγκόσμιο Βιβλίο Δεδομένων, η απαραίτητη πηγή βασικών πληροφοριών. (Greek)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Greek audio sample

Imports - partners

Greece 16%, Italy 10%, Turkey 8%, Russia 5%, Germany 5%, United Kingdom 5%, China 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; has had maritime/economic exclusion zone disputes with Turkey, particularly over energy exploration


Elevation

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 91 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

8.1% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

established in 1964, the National Guard (EF) is responsible for ensuring Cyprus’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; its primary focus is Turkey, which invaded Cyprus in 1974 and maintains a large military presence in the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus; the EF also participates in some internal missions, such as providing assistance during natural disasters; Greece is its main security partner and maintains about 1,000 troops on Cyprus; the EF has conducted training exercises with other militaries including France, Israel, and the US; since Cyprus joined the EU in 2004, the EF has actively participated in the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy and has sent small numbers of personnel to some EU and missions; Cyprus is also part of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

the EF, particularly the Army, would rely heavily on the mobilization of approximately 50,000 available reserves during a crisis; the majority of the active Army is deployed along the “Green Line” that separates the Greek Cypriots from the Turkish Cypriots; its principal combat forces are five infantry brigades, an armored brigade, and regiments of artillery, light infantry, and special forces; the Navy has a small number of coastal patrol craft and boats, as well as a special operations unit, while the Air Force has a few combat helicopters and ground-based air defense units (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 15,000 total active-duty personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of mostly Soviet-era weapons and equipment along with some more modern systems from several countries, including France, Israel, Russia, and Serbia (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 170 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 541,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 72,007 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 13.3% (2015 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.52 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 6.63 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.86 megatons (2020 est.)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Paphos; Painted Churches in the Troodos Region; Choirokoitia

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 86.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 5.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 54,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.72 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

54.5% (2023 est.)

Remittances

2.34% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.13% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.06% of GDP (2019 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Troodos (2023)

Labor force

655,100 (2021 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - 95,030 (2007 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 11.8% (2021 est.)

male: 9.2%

female: 14.9%

Net migration rate

6.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 39.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 37.9 years

female: 40.6 years

Debt - external

$213.19 billion (2019 est.)
$231.885 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

68 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.611 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.237 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.033 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

49,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

97.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
106.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

Total fertility rate

1.48 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021)
1.8% of GDP (2020)
1.6% of GDP (2019)
1.8% of GDP (2018)

Unemployment rate

6.13% (2021 est.)
7.59% (2020 est.)
7.07% (2019 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - 9.4% (2005 est.)

Population

1,308,120 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 809,900 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 91% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

8.024 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 8.024 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)

land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

22.42% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.546 billion (2021 est.)
$35.209 billion (2020 est.)
$36.819 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - $1.829 billion (2007 est.)

Roadways

total: 13,027 km (2022)

Turkish Cypriot control: 7,000 km (2011)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,320,794 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

31.2 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.45% (2021 est.)
-0.64% (2020 est.)
0.25% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.957 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.523 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.445 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$41,700 (2021 est.)
$39,500 (2020 est.)
$41,700 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

note:
area administered by Turkish Cypriots - $11,700 (2007 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 332,080 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 35.1% (2020 est.)

male: 47% (2020 est.)

female: 23.2% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

133.92 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.881 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.733 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 184 million kWh (2019 est.)

note: electricity production in area administered by Turkish Cypriots - 998.9 million kWh (est. 2005)

note: electricity consumption in area administered by Turkish Cypriots - 797.9 million kWh (est. 2005)

Merchant marine

total: 1,005 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 243, container ship 154, general cargo 211, oil tanker 47, other 350

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$23.748 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$20.711 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$19.575 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - $1.2 billion (est. 2007)

Exports

$24.551 billion (2021 est.)
$20.379 billion (2020 est.)
$19.835 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - $68.1 million (est. 2007)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 297,382 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80 years (2023 est.)

male: 77.2 years

female: 82.9 years

Real GDP growth rate

6.64% (2021 est.)
-4.37% (2020 est.)
5.53% (2019 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - -16.2% (2020 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

8.1% (2021 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - -0.3% (2007 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.5% (2017 est.)

services: 85.5% (2017 est.)

note: area administered by Turkish Cypriots - agriculture: 6.2%,; industry: 35.1%,; services: 58.7% (2012 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

6.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1% (2023 est.)

Airports

13 (2024)