Algeria - DZ - DZA - ALG - Africa

Last updated: April 11, 2024
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Algeria Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Moore AUBIN (since 9 February 2022)

embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030, Alger

mailing address: 6030 Algiers Place, Washington DC  20521-6030

telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000

FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2299

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.78% (male 6,594,512/female 6,286,191)

15-64 years: 64.29% (male 14,607,255/female 14,166,990)

65 years and over: 6.93% (2023 est.) (male 1,475,635/female 1,627,815)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Algeria. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

28 00 N, 3 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


9 (2024)

Natural hazards

mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season; droughts

Area - comparative

slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Area comparison map

slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service for men and women; 19-30 years of age for mandatory service for men (all Algerian men must register at age 17); service obligation reduced from 18 to 12 months in 2014 (2023)

note: conscripts comprise an estimated 70% of the military


Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including the ancient Numidians (3rd century B.C.), Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, over a dozen different Arab and Amazigh dynasties, Spaniards, and Ottoman Turks. Under the Turks, the Barbary pirates operated from North Africa and preyed on shipping, from about 1500 until the French captured Algiers in 1830. The French southward conquest of Algeria proceeded throughout the 19th century and was marked by many atrocities. A bloody eight-year struggle culminated in Algerian independence in 1962.

Algeria's long-dominant political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since played a large role in politics, though it is falling out of favor with the youth and current President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first-round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the 1991 legislative election led the Algerian military to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. An army crackdown on the FIS escalated into an FIS insurgency and intense violence from 1992-98 that resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many of which were attributed to extremist groups massacring villagers. The government gained the upper hand by the late 1990s, and FIS’s armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in 2000. FIS membership is now illegal.

In 1999, Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA won the presidency with the backing of the military, in an election that was boycotted by several candidates protesting alleged fraud.  He won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. Widespread protests against his decision to seek a fifth term broke out in early 2019. BOUTEFLIKA resigned in April 2019, and in December 2019, Algerians elected former Prime Minister Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE as the country’s new president. A longtime FLN member, TEBBOUNE ran for president as an independent. In 2020, Algeria held a constitutional referendum on governmental reforms, which TEBBOUNE enacted in 2021. Subsequent reforms to the national electoral law introduced open-list voting to curb corruption. The new law also eliminated gender quotas in Parliament, and the 2021 legislative elections saw female representation plummet. The referendum, parliamentary elections, and local elections saw record-low voter turnout.

Environment - current issues

air pollution in major cities; soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Population below poverty line

5.5% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, fertilizers, ammonia (2021)

Exports - partners

Italy 13%, France 13%, Spain 12%, United States 7%, United Kingdom 7%, India 5%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

58 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger (Algiers), Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Beni Abbes, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djanet, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Meghaier, El Meniaa, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, In Guezzam, In Salah, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Ouled Djellal, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Timimoun, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen, Touggourt

Agricultural products

potatoes, wheat, milk, watermelons, barley, onions, tomatoes, oranges, dates, vegetables

Military and security forces

Algerian People's National Army (ANP): Land Forces, Naval Forces (includes Coast Guard), Air Forces, Territorial Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard (under ANP but responsible to the President), National Gendarmerie

Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of National Security (national police) (2023)

note: the National Gendarmerie performs police functions outside urban areas under the auspices of the Ministry of National Defense; it is comprised of territorial, intervention/mobile, border guard, railway, riot control, and air support units; General Directorate of National Security share responsibility for maintaining law and order


revenues: $55.185 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $64.728 billion (2019 est.)


name: Algiers

geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Arabic "al-Jazair" meaning "the islands" and refers to the four islands formerly off the coast of the capital but joined to the mainland since 1525

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, packaged medical supplies, milk, vehicle parts (2019)


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer


998 km


history: several previous; latest approved by referendum November 2020

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2008, 2016; last in 2020

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
141.995 (2022 est.)
135.064 (2021 est.)
126.777 (2020 est.)
119.354 (2019 est.)
116.594 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Nadir LARBAOUI (since 11 November 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held on 7 September 2024); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament

election results:
Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (FLN) 58.1%, Abdelkader BENGRINA (El-Bina) 17.4%, Ali BENFLIS (Talaie El Hurriyet) 10.6%, Azzedine MIHOUBI (RND) 7.3%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 6.7%

2014: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness


5 July 1962 (from France)


petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Le Cour Suprême, (consists of 150 judges organized into 8 chambers: Civil, Commercial and Maritime, Criminal, House of Offenses and Contraventions, House of Petitions, Land, Personal Status, and Social; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals

Land boundaries

total: 6,734 km

border countries (6): Libya 989 km; Mali 1,359 km; Mauritania 460 km; Morocco 1,941 km; Niger 951 km; Tunisia 1,034 km

Land use

agricultural land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.8% (2018 est.)

other: 81.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Council of the Nation or Majlis al-Umma (174 seats, statutory; 170 currently); two-thirds of members indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local assemblies within each wilaya, and one-third of members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National People's Assembly or al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani (407 seats, including 8 seats for Algerian diaspora); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote using the Hare quota method; members serve 5-year terms)

Council of the Nation - last held on 5 February 2022 (next expected in 2025)
National People's Assembly - snap election held on 12 June 2021 (next to be held on 12 June 2026)

election results:
Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 54, RND 22, Future Front 7, National Construction Movement 5, FFS 4, other 6, independent 18, appointed 58; composition as of February 2024 - men 163, women 7, percentage women 4.1%

National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 98, MSP 65, RND 58, (Future Front) 48, Movement of National Construction 39, other 15, independent 84; composition as of February 2024 - men 375, women 32, percent of women 7.9%; note - total Parliament percent of women 6.8%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.4%

male: 87.4%

female: 75.3% (2018)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

International organization participation


National holiday

Independence Day, 5 July (1962); Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)


noun: Algerian(s)

adjective: Algerian

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Geography - note

largest country in Africa but 80% desert; canyons and caves in the southern Hoggar Mountains and in the barren Tassili n'Ajjer area in the southeast of the country contain numerous examples of prehistoric art - rock paintings and carvings depicting human activities and wild and domestic animals (elephants, giraffes, cattle) - that date to the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, when the region was completely vegetated

Economic overview

suffering oil and gas economy; lack of sector and market diversification; political instability chilling domestic consumption; poor credit access and declines in business confidence; COVID-19 austerity policies; delayed promised socio-economic reforms


2,600 km condensate, 16,415 km gas, 3,447 km liquid petroleum gas, 7,036 km oil, 144 km refined products (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Fatma Zohra ZEROUATI]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed DAOUI]
El-Infitah [Omar BOUACHA]
El Mostakbal (Future Front) [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Equity and Proclamation Party or PEP [Naima SALHI]
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Yazid BENAICHA]
Justice and Development Front or FJD [Abdellah DJABALLAH]
Movement for National Reform or El Islah [Mohamed Ben ABDESSALAM]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abdelali Hassani CHERIF]
National Construction Movement or El-Bina (Harakat El-Binaa El-Watani) [Abdelkader BENGRINA]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Mustapha YAHI]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Redouane KHELIF]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelkrim BENMBAREK]
National Militancy Front or FMN [Abdallah HADDAD]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Dalila YALAQUI]
National Republican Alliance or ANR [Belkacem SAHLI]
New Dawn Party (El-Fajr El-Jadid) [Tahar BENBAIBECHE]
New Generation (Jil Jadid) [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty or PLJ [Djamel BENZIADI]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Atmane MAZOUZ]
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Youcef AOUCHICHE]
Union for Change and Progress or UCP [Zoubida ASSOUL]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Salah ABDERAHMANE]
Vanguard of Liberties (Talaie El Hurriyet) [Reda BENOUNANE]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]

note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Algeria has a steadily developing telecom infrastructure with growth encouraged by supportive regulatory measures and by government policies aimed at delivering serviceable internet connections across the country; mobile broadband is largely based on 3G and LTE, and the data rates are also low in global terms; LTE is available in all provinces, investment is required from the mobile network operators (MNOs) to improve the quality of service; the state has previously been hesitant to commit to 5G, instead encouraging the MNOs to undertake upgrades to LTE infrastructure before investing in commercial 5G services; in March 2022, the state is in the process of freeing up the requisite spectrum to enable the MNOs to launch 5G services sometime this year; fixed internet speeds remain slow (2022)

domestic: a limited network of fixed-lines with a teledensity of slightly less than 12 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; mobile-cellular teledensity was approximately 106 telephones per 100 persons in 2020 (2021)

international: country code - 213; ALPAL-2 is a submarine telecommunications cable system in the Mediterranean Sea linking Algeria and the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca; ORVAL is a submarine cable to Spain; landing points for the TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/SeaMeWe-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; MED cable connecting Algeria with France; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; Algeria part of the 4,500 Km terrestrial Trans Sahara Backbone network which connects to other fiber networks in the region; Alcomstat-1 satellite offering  telemedicine network (2020)


mostly high plateau and desert; Atlas Mountains in the far north and Hoggar Mountains in the south; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

conventional short form: Algeria

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah

local short form: Al Jaza'ir

etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers


Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Map references


Irrigated land

12,605 sq km (2016)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sabri BOUKADOUM (since 27 February 2024)

chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): more than 100,000 (Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf); 7,345 (Syria) (mid-year 2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$194.998 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 3 — Algeria does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore, Algeria was downgraded to Tier 3; the government did take some steps to address trafficking, including adopting a National Action Plan, creating specialized trafficking units, and approving standardized victim identification indicators, although the indicators had not yet been promulgated; a draft anti-trafficking law was pending in Parliament at the end of the reporting period and the government continued work with an international organization to develop a National Referral Mechanism and train officials; however, officials conducted fewer investigations and prosecutions, and efforts to identify and assist victims remained insufficient; authorities most likely continued to penalize trafficking victims for immigration offenses committed as a result of being trafficked; government efforts to deport undocumented migrants without screening for trafficking indicators deterred some victims from reporting crimes or seeking assistance (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Algeria, and Algerians are exploited abroad; undocumented migrants, primarily from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria are vulnerable to labor and sex trafficking in Algeria; unaccompanied women and women traveling with children are particularly vulnerable to sex trafficking and forced domestic work; refugees and asylum seekers are vulnerable to trafficking before and during migration to Algeria; false promises of work in beauty salons or restaurants lure migrants to Algeria where they are exploited in sex and labor trafficking; victims report physical and sexual abuse from smugglers and traffickers; sub-Saharan men and women needing funds for their onward journey to Europe work illegally in construction and commercial sex and are vulnerable to sex trafficking and debt bondage;  Algerian women and girls are vulnerable to sex trafficking due to financial problems or after running away from home; criminal begging rings that exploit sub-Saharan African migrant children are common; Cuban medical workers in Algeria may have been forced to work by the Cuban Government, and North Korean and Chinese nationals working in Algeria may be at risk of exploitation (2023)

Credit ratings

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

11.67 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


urban population: 75.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 98.8% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 1.2% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)

lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI

note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Algeria. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

2.902 million ALGIERS (capital), 936,000 Oran (2022)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Hospital bed density

1.9 beds/1,000 population (2015)

National symbol(s)

five-pointed star between the extended horns of a crescent moon, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red

Demographic profile

For the first two thirds of the 20th century, Algeria's high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962, the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria's population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women's rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women's education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman's age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.

Algeria's fertility rate experienced an unexpected upturn in the early 2000s, as the average woman's age at first marriage dropped slightly. The reversal in fertility could represent a temporary fluctuation in marriage age or, less likely, a decrease in the steady rate of contraceptive use.

Thousands of Algerian peasants - mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region - faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (known as Harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers' decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.

Not until Algeria's civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria's construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.

Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara (today part of Morocco). More than 100,000 Sahrawis are estimated to be living in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

53.6% (2018/19)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 42.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 38.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 11.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 23.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -35.8% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.5

youth dependency ratio: 48.7

elderly dependency ratio: 9.8

potential support ratio: 10.2 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Population distribution

the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.8% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 99.6% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 99.2% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 87

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,442,442 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 28.28 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.3% of population

rural: 91.3% of population

total: 96.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.7% of population

rural: 8.7% of population

total: 3.5% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab-Amazigh 99%, European less than 1%

note: although almost all Algerians are Amazigh in origin and not Arab, only a minority identify themselves as primarily Amazigh, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers and in several other communities; the Amazigh are also Muslim but identify with their Amazigh rather than Arab cultural heritage; some Amazigh have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has officially recognized Amazigh languages and introduced them into public schools


Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Ahmadi Muslim, Shia Muslim, Ibadi Muslim) <1% (2012 est.)


Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Tamazight (official) (dialects include Kabyle (Taqbaylit), Shawiya (Tacawit), Mzab, Tuareg (Tamahaq))

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Arabic audio sample

Imports - partners

China 18%, France 14%, Italy 8%, Spain 8%, Germany 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

Algeria-Morocco: the Algerian-Moroccan land border remains closed; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco remain a dormant dispute

Algeria-Libya: dormant dispute includes Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria

Algeria-Mali: none identified

Algeria-Mauritania: none identified

Algeria-Niger: none identified

Algeria-Tunisia: none identified

Military - note

the ANP is responsible for external defense but also has some internal security responsibilities; key areas of concern include border and maritime security, terrorism, regional instability, and tensions with Morocco; Algeria supports the pro-independence Polisario Front in Western Sahara and accuses Morocco of supporting the Algerian separatist Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie (MAK); border security and counterterrorism have received additional focus since the Arab Spring events of 2011 and the rise of terrorist threats emanating from Libya and the Sahel; the Army and Ministry of Defense (MND) paramilitary forces of the Gendarmerie and the border guards have beefed up their presence along the frontiers with Tunisia, Libya, Niger, and Mali to interdict and deter cross-border attacks by Islamic militant groups; the ANP and MND paramilitary forces have also increased counterterrorism cooperation with some neighboring countries, particularly Tunisia, including joint operations

the ANP has also played a large role in the country’s politics since independence in 1962, including coups in 1965 and 1991; it was a key backer of BOUTEFLIKA’s election in 1999 and remained a center of power during his 20-year rule; the military was instrumental in BOUTEFLIKA’s resignation in 2019, when it withdrew support and called for him to be removed from office

the ANP is well-funded and one of the better-equipped militaries in North Africa; over the past decade, it has made large investments in more modern equipment, including armored vehicles, air defense systems, fighter aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and warships, largely from Russia but also China and Western European suppliers; it is a conscript-based force that exercises regularly, including jointly with foreign militaries such as those of Russia, Tunisia, and some Sahel countries; the ANP is part of the African Union’s Standby Force for North Africa; the core combat units of the Land Forces consists of multiple armored and mechanized divisions, as well as a combined airborne and special forces division, plus separate brigades of mechanized or motorized infantry and tanks; the Naval Forces’ principal warships include frigates, corvettes, and attack submarines; in 2015, the Naval Forces acquired from Italy its first amphibious transport dock (LHD) ship, which is capable of carrying helicopters, small landing craft, and more than 300 troops; the Air Force has more than 100 Russian-made combat aircraft, as well as about 200 Russian-made combat helicopters (2023)


highest point: Tahat 2,908 m

lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m

mean elevation: 800 m

Physicians density

1.72 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Major infectious diseases

note: on 23 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Algeria is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Current health expenditure

6.3% of GDP (2020)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 250,000 active armed forces personnel (100,000 Army, 15,000 Air Force/Air Defense, 10,000 Navy, 1,000 Republican Guard, 125,000 Gendarmerie); approximately 200,000 General Directorate of National Security (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the ANP's inventory includes mostly Russian-sourced equipment; in recent years, Algeria has received arms from a variety of countries with Russia as the leading supplier (2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM); Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) – Algeria; al-Mulathamun Battalion (al-Mourabitoun)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix T

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 22.68 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 150.01 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 49.94 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 3.6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 190 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 6.67 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 12,378,740 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 990,299 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 8% (2013 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 37.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Major aquifers

Lullemeden-Irhazer Aquifer System, Murzuk-Djado Basin, North Western Sahara Aquifer, Taoudeni-Tanezrouft Basin

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Beni Hammad Fort (c); Djémila (c); Casbah of Algiers (c); M'zab Valley (c); Tassili n'Ajjer (m); Timgad (c); Tipasa (c)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 sq km)

Illicit drugs


Child marriage

women married by age 18: 3.8% (2019 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 85,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 85,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 59 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Natural gas

production: 87,853,976,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 46,945,035,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 42,667,386,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 4,503,900,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 1,414,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 450,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 633,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 4,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12.2 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 98.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.45 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

56% (2023 est.)


0.9% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.17% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Space agency/agencies

Algerian Space Agency (Agence Spatiale Algérienne, ASAL; established 2002) (2023)

Space program overview

has a national space policy and a national space research program with stated goals of supporting internal development, managing resource usage, mastering space technology, and reinforcing national sovereignty; builds and operates communications and remote sensing (RS) satellites; researching and developing a range of space-related capabilities, including satellites and satellite payloads, communications, RS, instrumentation, satellite image processing, and geo-spatial information; has bilateral relationships with a variety of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Argentina, China, France, Germany, India, Russia, Ukraine, and the UK; also a member of the Arab Space Coordination Group, established by the UAE in 2019 (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Labor force

13.023 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 31.9% (2021 est.)

male: 27.8%

female: 54%

Net migration rate

-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 28.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 28.6 years

female: 29.2 years

Debt - external

$5.574 billion (2019 est.)
$5.666 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

78 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$71.852 billion (2022 est.)
$56.211 billion (2021 est.)
$59.434 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

82,930 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

27.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

Total fertility rate

2.97 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

9% of GDP (2023)
4.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2021 est.)
6.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
6% of GDP (2019 est.)

Unemployment rate

12.49% (2022 est.)
13.73% (2021 est.)
14.04% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


44,758,398 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-9.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 31.24 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 71% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

151.633 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 352,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 57.867 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 93.414 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 2,381,740 sq km

land: 2,381,740 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

32.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$502.837 billion (2022 est.)
$487.245 billion (2021 est.)
$471.223 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 112,696 km (2020)


85 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 47,028,685 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

27.6 (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9.27% (2022 est.)
7.23% (2021 est.)
2.42% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

578,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$19.036 billion (2022 est.)
-$4.515 billion (2021 est.)
-$18.187 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$11,200 (2022 est.)
$11,000 (2021 est.)
$10,800 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,790,459 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 21% (2020 est.)

male: 41.3% (2020 est.)

female: 0.7% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

27.4% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

61.433 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

4.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

20.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 21.694 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 66.646 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 673 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 531 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 9.897 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 119 (2022)

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 4, general cargo 11, oil tanker 14, other 89

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.7% (2018/19)


$46.617 billion (2022 est.)
$44.302 billion (2021 est.)
$42.347 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$69.058 billion (2022 est.)
$41.851 billion (2021 est.)
$24.902 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,576,193 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

627,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.31 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 77 years

female: 78.6 years

Real GDP growth rate

3.2% (2022 est.)
3.4% (2021 est.)
-5.1% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

1.32% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 4,020 km (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)

services: 47.4% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

7% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.62% (2023 est.)