Egypt - EG - EGY - EGY - Africa

Last updated: April 15, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Herro MUSTAFA GARG (since 15 November 2023)

embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: 7700 Cairo Place, Washington DC 20512-7700

telephone: [20-2] 2797-3300

FAX: [20-2] 2797-3200

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Alexandria

Age structure

0-14 years: 34.37% (male 19,381,371/female 18,271,080)

15-64 years: 60.27% (male 33,921,778/female 32,102,087)

65 years and over: 5.36% (2023 est.) (male 2,976,765/female 2,893,639)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Egypt. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

27 00 N, 30 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


56 (2024)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

Area - comparative

more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Area comparison map

more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Military service age and obligation

voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 for men and 17 for women; 18-30 years of age for conscript service for men; service obligation 14-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; active service length depends on education; high school drop-outs serve for the full 36 months, while college graduates serve for lesser periods of time, depending on their education level (2023)

note: conscripts are estimated to comprise over half of the military, as well as a considerable portion of the Central Security Force


The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations in Egypt. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. Arab conquerors introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and ruled for the next six centuries. The Mamluks, a local military caste, took control around 1250 and continued to govern after the Ottoman Turks conquered Egypt in 1517.

Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but the country's nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Egypt gained partial independence from the UK in 1922 and full sovereignty in 1952. British forces evacuated the Suez Canal Zone in 1956. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have reaffirmed the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's fast-growing population as it implements large-scale infrastructure projects, energy cooperation, and foreign direct investment appeals.

Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new legislature was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed MORSI won the presidential election. Following protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. Simultaneously, the government began enacting laws to limit freedoms of assembly and expression. In 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and then elected former defense minister Abdel Fattah EL-SISI president. EL-SISI was reelected to a second four-year term in 2018 and a third term in December 2023. 



Environment - current issues

agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban

Population below poverty line

29.7% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 27.5% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizers, gold (2021)

Exports - partners

United States 8%, Turkey 7%, Greece 7%, Italy 6%, India 5% (2021)

Administrative divisions

27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj

Agricultural products

sugar cane, sugar beets, wheat, maize, tomatoes, rice, potatoes, oranges, onions, milk

Military and security forces

Egyptian Armed Forces (EAF): Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Coast Guard), Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Border Guard Forces; Interior Ministry: Public Security Sector Police, the Central Security Force, National Security Agency (2023)

note 1: the Public Security Sector Police are responsible for law enforcement nationwide; the Central Security Force protects infrastructure and is responsible for crowd control; the National Security Agency is responsible for internal security threats and counterterrorism along with other security services

note 2: in addition to its external defense duties, the EAF also has a mandate to assist police in protecting vital infrastructure during a state of emergency; military personnel were granted full arrest authority in 2011 but normally only use this authority during states of emergency and “periods of significant turmoil”


revenues: $71.16 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $100.318 billion (2020 est.)


name: Cairo

geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in October

etymology: from the Arabic "al-Qahira," meaning "the victorious"

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, cars, crude petroleum, corn, packaged medicines (2021)


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters


2,450 km


history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom are not amendable unless the amendment "brings more guarantees;" amended 2019

Exchange rates

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
19.16 (2022 est.)
15.645 (2021 est.)
15.759 (2020 est.)
16.771 (2019 est.)
17.767 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive branch and approved by the House of Representatives

elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for 3 consecutive terms); election last held on 10 to 12 December 2023; next to held in 2029); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives

election results: Abdel Fattah EL-SISI reelected president in first round; percent of valid votes cast - Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (independent) 89.6%, Hazam OMAR (Republican People’s Party) 4.5%, Farid ZAHRAN (Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4%, Abdel-Samad YAMAMA 1.9%

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band; Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; and Yemen, which has a plain white band

Illicit drugs

major source of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the military-led revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically


textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitration on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as "ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) (consists of the court president and NA judges and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council

judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected and appointed by the Supreme Judiciary Council and approved as a formality by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life; under the 2019 amendments, the president has the power to appoint heads of judiciary authorities and courts, the prosecutor general, and the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)

Land boundaries

total: 2,612 km

border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km; Israel 208 km; Libya 1,115 km; Sudan 1,276 km

Land use

agricultural land: 3.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.1% (2018 est.)

other: 96.3% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (Majlis Al-Shiyoukh) (300 seats; 100 members directly elected in single seat constituencies, 100 directly elected by closed party-list vote, and 100 appointed by the president; note - the upper house, previously the Shura Council, was eliminated in the 2014 constitution, reestablished as the Senate, following passage in a 2019 constitutional referendum and approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020
House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members of both houses serve 5-year terms

elections: Senate - first round held on 11-12 August 2020 (9-10 August for diaspora); second round held on 8-9 September (6-7 September for diaspora) (next to be held in 2025)
House of Representatives - last held 24-25 October and 7-8 November 2020) (next to be held in 2025)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nation's Future Party 100, independent 100; composition - men 260, women 40, percent of women 13.3% 
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nation's Future Party 316, Republican People's Party 50, New Wafd Party 26, Homeland Defenders Party 23, Modern Egypt Party 11, Reform and Development Party 9, Al-Nour Party 7, Egyptian Conference Party 7, Egyptian Freedom Party 7, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 7, Tagammu 6, Justice Party 2, Etradet Geel Party 1, independent 124; composition - men 428, women 164, percent of women 27.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 22.8%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 73.1%

male: 78.8%

female: 67.4% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus

continental shelf: 200 nm

International organization participation


National holiday

Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)


noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Geography - note

note: controls Sinai Peninsula, the only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories

Economic overview

Africa’s second-largest economy; 2030 Vision to diversify markets and energy infrastructure; improving fiscal, external, and current accounts; underperforming private sector; poor labor force participation; expanded credit access


486 km condensate, 74 km condensate/gas, 7,986 km gas, 957 km liquid petroleum gas, 5,225 km oil, 37 km oil/gas/water, 895 km refined products, 65 km water (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [El Etehad el Masri el ARABI]
Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]
Conservative Party [El Mohafezin]
Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]
Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]
El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]
El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas NADIM]
Eradet Geel Party [Tayseer MATAR]
Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
Freedom Party [Mamdouuh HASSAN]
Justice Party
Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
My Homeland Egypt Party [Gen. Seif El Islam ABDEL BARY ]
Nation's Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) [Abdel Wahab Abdel RAZEQ]
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
Republican People’s Party [Hazam OMAR]
Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
Wafd Party [Abdel Sanad YAMAMA]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said

oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Port Said (East) (4,764,583) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay), Sumed

Gulf of Suez - Suez


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Egypt’s large telecom market is supported by a population of about 109 million and benefits from effective competition in most sectors; a liberal regulatory regime allows for unified licenses which permit operators to offer fixed-line as well as mobile services; in recent years the government has developed a number of digital migration projects aimed at increasing average broadband speeds, delivering fiber broadband to about 60% of the population, developing an in-house satellite program, and creating a knowledge-based economy through the greater adoption of ICTs; the New Administrative Capital being built is only one of more than a dozen smart city projects, which together are stimulating investment in 5G and fiber broadband, as well as the adoption of IoT and AI solutions; the country endeavors to be a significant ICT hub in the North Africa and Middle East regions; Egypt’s mature mobile market has one of the highest subscription rates in Africa; progress in the adoption of mobile data services has been hampered by the lack of sufficient spectrum; the regulator in September 2020 made available 60MHz in the 2.6GHz band, though the spectrum was not allocated until late 2021; the additional spectrum will go far to enabling the MNOs to improve the quality of mobile broadband services offered; further 5G trials are to be held later in 2022, focused on the New Administrative Capital; the international cable infrastructure remains an important asset for Egypt, which benefits from its geographical position; Telecom Egypt has become one of the largest concerns in this segment, being a participating member in numerous cable systems; in mid-2021 the telco announced plans to build the Hybrid African Ring Path system, connecting a number of landlocked countries in Africa with Italy, France, and Portugal; the system will partly use the company’s existing terrestrial and sub sea cable networks (2022)

domestic: fixed-line roughly 10 per 100, mobile-cellular 95 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 20; landing points for Aletar, Africa-1, FEA, Hawk, IMEWE, and the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4 submarine cable networks linking to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Australia ; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2019)


vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form: Egypt

local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form: Misr

former: United Arab Republic (short-lived unification with Syria)

etymology: the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier


Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Map references


Irrigated land

36,500 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Motaz Mounir ZAHRAN (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400; [1] (202) 895-5408

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131; [1] (202) 244-4319

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 70,021 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (mid-year 2022); 52,446 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 20,970 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 21,105 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers), 15,585 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 10,025 (Yemen) (refugees and asylum seekers), 6,815 (Iraq) (refugees and asylum seekers), 6,802 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2022); 464,827 (Sudan) (refugees since 15 April 2023), 155,825 (Syria) (2024)

stateless persons: 10 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$476.748 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Egypt does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; efforts included approving a new national strategy to combat trafficking, increasing convictions of traffickers, more than doubling the training of officials and partners, and issuing presidential directives to improve public awareness and protection; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts, compared with the previous reporting period, to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; officials identified the fewest victims since 2019 and investigations decreased; the government pursued trafficking charges to prosecute some non-trafficking offenses, undercutting efforts to hold traffickers criminally accountable; officials continued to penalize victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; despite high risks for foreign nationals in Egypt, non-Egyptian victims are rarely identified; victim services and shelter remained insufficient and relied on international organizations and NGOs to provide some services, especially for men and foreign victims; for the third consecutive year, the government did not approve a draft law to expand labor protections to domestic workers; therefore, Egypt was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Egypt, and Egyptians are exploited abroad; Egyptian children are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic service, street begging, drug trafficking, quarrying, and agricultural work in Egypt; traffickers, and some parents, force children, including Egyptian and Syrian children, to beg in the streets or exploit girls in sex trafficking; parents, husbands, and siblings subject women and girls to sex trafficking or forced domestic service to supplement family incomes; child sex tourism occurs primarily in Giza and Cairo, where individuals from the Arabian Gulf, including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, purchase women and girls for “temporary” or “summer” marriages for commercial sex, as well as forced labor; parents force underage girls into permanent marriages where they are coerced into domestic servitude or commercial sex, and some husbands coerce their wives into sex trafficking or domestic servitude; some Egyptians attempting to migrate to Europe through Libya were subject to sex trafficking and forced labor; Egyptian children are exploited in sex trafficking and forced begging in Europe, and adults are forced into labor, construction, agriculture, domestic work, and low-paying service jobs in the region; men and women trafficked from South and Southeast Asia and East Africa are subjected to forced labor in domestic service, construction, and begging in Egypt; male refugees and migrants are vulnerable to forced labor; foreign domestic workers primarily from Bangladesh, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nigeria, the Philippines, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Yemen, and parts of West Africa are highly vulnerable to forced labor; women and girls, including refugees and migrants from Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East are subjected to sex trafficking in Egypt; refugees and migrants from South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen who live in Egypt are at risk of trafficking; undocumented migrants and asylum-seekers, transiting Egypt from the Horn of Africa en route to Europe, face trafficking along the migration route (2023)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2019)

Moody's rating: B2 (2019)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2018)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

57.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)


urban population: 43.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; dozens of private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available for free; some limited satellite services are also available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 30 stations belonging to 8 networks; privately-owned radio includes 8 major stations, 4 of which belong to 1 network (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.3% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)

lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Egypt. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

22.183 million CAIRO (capital), 5.588 million Alexandria, 778,000 Bur Sa'id (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

0.75 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.6 years (2014 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Demographic profile

Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the third-most-populous country in Africa, behind Nigeria and Ethiopia. Most of the country is desert, so about 95% of the population is concentrated in a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River, which represents only about 5% of Egypt’s land area. Egypt’s rapid population growth – 46% between 1994 and 2014 – stresses limited natural resources, jobs, housing, sanitation, education, and health care.

Although the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) fell from roughly 5.5 children per woman in 1980 to just over 3 in the late 1990s, largely as a result of state-sponsored family planning programs, the population growth rate dropped more modestly because of decreased mortality rates and longer life expectancies. During the last decade, Egypt’s TFR decline stalled for several years and then reversed, reaching 3.6 in 2011, and is under 3 as of 2022. Contraceptive use has held steady at about 60%, while preferences for larger families and early marriage may have strengthened in the wake of the recent 2011 revolution. The large cohort of women of or nearing childbearing age will sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future (an effect called population momentum).

Nevertheless, post-MUBARAK governments have not made curbing population growth a priority. To increase contraceptive use and to prevent further overpopulation will require greater government commitment and substantial social change, including encouraging smaller families and better educating and empowering women. Currently, literacy, educational attainment, and labor force participation rates are much lower for women than men. In addition, the prevalence of violence against women, the lack of female political representation, and the perpetuation of the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continue to keep women from playing a more significant role in Egypt’s public sphere.

Population pressure, poverty, high unemployment, and the fragmentation of inherited land holdings have historically motivated Egyptians, primarily young men, to migrate internally from rural and smaller urban areas in the Nile Delta region and the poorer rural south to Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban centers in the north, while a much smaller number migrated to the Red Sea and Sinai areas. Waves of forced internal migration also resulted from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the floods caused by the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970. Limited numbers of students and professionals emigrated temporarily prior to the early 1970s, when economic problems and high unemployment pushed the Egyptian Government to lift restrictions on labor migration. At the same time, high oil revenues enabled Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and other Gulf states, as well as Libya and Jordan, to fund development projects, creating a demand for unskilled labor (mainly in construction), which attracted tens of thousands of young Egyptian men.

Between 1970 and 1974 alone, Egyptian migrants in the Gulf countries increased from approximately 70,000 to 370,000. Egyptian officials encouraged legal labor migration both to alleviate unemployment and to generate remittance income (remittances continue to be one of Egypt’s largest sources of foreign currency and GDP). During the mid-1980s, however, depressed oil prices resulting from the Iran-Iraq War, decreased demand for low-skilled labor, competition from less costly South Asian workers, and efforts to replace foreign workers with locals significantly reduced Egyptian migration to the Gulf States. The number of Egyptian migrants dropped from a peak of almost 3.3 million in 1983 to about 2.2 million at the start of the 1990s, but numbers gradually recovered.

In the 2000s, Egypt began facilitating more labor migration through bilateral agreements, notably with Arab countries and Italy, but illegal migration to Europe through overstayed visas or maritime human smuggling via Libya also rose. The Egyptian Government estimated there were 6.5 million Egyptian migrants in 2009, with roughly 75% being temporary migrants in other Arab countries (Libya, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates) and 25% being predominantly permanent migrants in the West (US, UK, Italy, France, and Canada).

During the 2000s, Egypt became an increasingly important transit and destination country for economic migrants and asylum seekers, including Palestinians, East Africans, and South Asians and, more recently, Iraqis and Syrians. Egypt draws many refugees because of its resettlement programs with the West; Cairo has one of the largest urban refugee populations in the world. Many East African migrants are interned or live in temporary encampments along the Egypt-Israel border, and some have been shot and killed by Egyptian border guards.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

58.5% (2014)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 86.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 16.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -28.5% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.8

youth dependency ratio: 53.2

elderly dependency ratio: 7.7

potential support ratio: 13 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt

dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Population distribution

approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 101

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,340,832 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 437.63 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 98.2% of population

total: 98.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 1.8% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Egyptian 99.7%, other 0.3% (2006 est.)

note: data represent respondents by nationality


Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10%


Arabic (official), English, and French widely understood by educated classes

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، أفضل مصدر للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Arabic audio sample

Imports - partners

China 18%, Saudi Arabia 9%, United States 6%, Russia 5%, Turkey 5% (2021)

Communications - note

one of the largest and most famous libraries in the ancient world was the Great Library of Alexandria in Egypt (founded about 295 B.C., it may have survived in some form into the 5th century A.D.); seeking to resurrect the great center of learning and communication, the Egyptian Government in 2002 inaugurated the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, an Egyptian National Library on the site of the original Great Library, which commemorates the original archive and also serves as a center of cultural and scientific excellence

Disputes - international

Egypt-Gaza Strip: constructed a barrier and established a buffer zone on its border with Gaza to halt the passage of weapons and militants through cross-border smuggling tunnels and pressure the Palestinian HAMAS terrorist group that runs the Gaza Strip

Egypt-Ethiopia: Ethiopia's construction of a large dam (the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia since 2011 has become a focal point of relations with Egypt and Sudan; Egypt has described the giant hydroelectric project as an existential threat because of its potential to control the flow of the river that is a key source of water for the country; Ethiopia completed filling the dam in 2023


highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

mean elevation: 321 m

Current health expenditure

4.4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Egyptian Armed Forces (EAF) are responsible for external defense but also have an internal role assisting police and paramilitary security forces during emergencies and in anti-terrorism operations; the EAF also participates in foreign peacekeeping and other security missions, as well as both bilateral and multinational exercises; the military has considerable political power and independence; it has long had a crucial role in Egypt’s politics and has a large stake in the civilian economy, including running banks, businesses, gas stations, shipping lines, and utilities, and producing consumer and industrial goods, importing commodities, and building and managing infrastructure projects, such as bridges, roads, hospitals, and housing; the various enterprises are reportedly profitable enough to make the armed forces largely self-funded

key areas of concern for the EAF include Islamic militant groups operating out of the Sinai Peninsula, regional challenges such as instability in Libya and Yemen, and maritime security; since 2011, the EAF has been conducting operations alongside other security forces in the North Sinai governorate against several militant groups, particularly the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham; since 2014, it has deployed large numbers of troops along its border with Libya and provided air support to the Saudi-led coalition operating in Yemen; the Navy in recent years has sought to modernize and expand its capabilities and profile in the Eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea, including the acquisition of helicopter carriers, modern frigates, and attack submarines; in 2020, the EAF inaugurated a large joint service military base on the Red Sea to secure the country’s southern coasts, protect economic investments and natural resources, and confront security challenges in the Red Sea region

the EAF is the largest and one of the best equipped militaries in the region; the Army’s primary combat forces include approximately 13 divisions, which are mostly armored or mechanized, complemented by some independent armored and infantry brigades; the EAF has approximately 5,000 artillery systems, plus surface-to-surface missile forces and a large special operations command, which includes airborne, airmobile, commando, special forces, and other specialized units; the Navy’s principal warships are approximately 20 frigates and corvettes, eight attack submarines, and two French-built helicopter-capable amphibious assault ships (LHDs); the Air Force has more than 300 French-, Russian-, and US-made fighter and multipurpose fighter aircraft, as well as nearly 100 US- and Russian-produced attack helicopters

Egypt is a major security partner of the US and one of the largest recipients of US military aid in the region; it also has Major Non-NATO Ally status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation

the Multinational Force & Observers (MFO) has operated in the Sinai since 1982 as a peacekeeping and monitoring force to supervise the implementation of the security provisions of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Treaty of Peace; the MFO is an independent international organization, created by agreement between Egypt and Israel; it is composed of about 1,150 troops from 13 countries; Colombia, Fiji, and the US are the leading providers of troops to the MFO (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 450,000 active-duty personnel (325,000 Army; 18,000 Navy; 30,000 Air Force; 75,000 Air Defense Command); approximately 300,000 Central Security Forces personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the EAF's inventory is comprised of a mix of domestically produced, Soviet-era, and more modern, particularly Western, weapons systems; in recent years, the EAF has embarked on an extensive equipment modernization program with significant purchases from foreign suppliers; major suppliers have included France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the US; Egypt has an established defense industry that produces a range of products from small arms to armored vehicles and naval vessels; it also has licensed and co-production agreements with several countries, including the US (2023)

Military deployments

1,000 (plus nearly 200 police) Central African Republic (MINUSCA); also has about 350 police deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo under MONUSCO (2024)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Army of Islam; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – Sinai Province (ISIS-SP); al-Qa’ida

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10.75 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 5.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 61.35 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 21 million tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2.625 million tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 12.5% (2013 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 33.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 63.16 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 238.56 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 59.68 megatons (2020 est.)

Major aquifers

Nubian Aquifer System

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Mediterranean Sea) Nile (3,254,853 sq km)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Lake Manzala - 1,360 sq km
note - largest of Nile Delta lakes

Major rivers (by length in km)

An Nīl (Nile) river mouth (shared with Rwanda [s], Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Sudan) - 6,650 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Memphis and its Necropolis (c); Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis (c); Nubian Monuments (c); Saint Catherine Area (c); Abu Mena (c); Historic Cairo (c); Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley) (n)


production: 262,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 2.31 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 86,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.134 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 16 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 88.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 2.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 7.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 64,292,955,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 58,176,781,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 5,009,100,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 83.563 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 1,783,958,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 660,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 810,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 204,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 117,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 3.3 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.34 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

71.1% (2023 est.)


5.94% of GDP (2022 est.)
7.41% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.71% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 0

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 3 (2023)

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0GW

Percent of total electricity production: 0%

Percent of total energy produced: 0%

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Space program overview

has a growing program with a focus on developing the capabilities to manufacture satellites and associated support infrastructure; seeks to become a regional space power; operates satellites; builds satellites jointly with foreign partners but developing localized satellite manufacturing capabilities; acquiring through technology transfers and domestic development programs other space-related technologies, including those related to communications, Earth imaging/remote sensing (RS), and satellite payloads and components; cooperating on space-related issues with a variety of foreign governments and commercial space companies, including those of Belarus, Canada, China, the European Space Agency and its member states (particularly France, Germany, Italy), Ghana, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Ukraine, the UAE, and the US; also a member of the Arab Space Coordination Group, established by the UAE in 2019; has a commercial space sector that focuses on satellite communications, satellite design and production, RS, and space applications (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

Egyptian Space Agency (EgSA; public economic authority established 2019); National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS; formed in 1994 from the Remote Sensing Center, which was established in 1971) (2023)

Labor force

32.614 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 24.3% (2021 est.)

male: 15.6%

female: 59.5%

Net migration rate

-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 24.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 24.1 years

female: 24.1 years

Debt - external

$109.238 billion (2019 est.)
$92.638 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$32.144 billion (2022 est.)
$39.824 billion (2021 est.)
$38.973 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


3,500 km (2018) (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m)

Refined petroleum products - imports

280,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

103% of GDP (2017 est.)
96.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Total fertility rate

2.76 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

6.4% (2022 est.)
7.44% (2021 est.)
7.97% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


109,546,720 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-8.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 79.2 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 72% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

235.137 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 8.728 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 112.281 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 114.128 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 1,001,450 sq km

land: 995,450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

12.52% (of GDP) (2015 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.419 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.331 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.288 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 65,050 km

paved: 48,000 km

unpaved: 17,050 km (2019)


73 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 103,449,427 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

31.9 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

13.9% (2022 est.)
5.21% (2021 est.)
5.04% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

47,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$10.537 billion (2022 est.)
-$18.611 billion (2021 est.)
-$14.236 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$12,800 (2022 est.)
$12,200 (2021 est.)
$12,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 9,349,469 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 24.3% (2020 est.)

male: 48.1% (2020 est.)

female: 0.4% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

32% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

40.063 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

20.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 59.826 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 149,079,120,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 360 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 74 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 33.623 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 441 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 6, general cargo 23, oil tanker 42, other 356

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

7% (2014)


$97.144 billion (2022 est.)
$94.039 billion (2021 est.)
$72.482 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$76.295 billion (2022 est.)
$58.339 billion (2021 est.)
$40.102 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 11.6 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

547,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 73.5 years

female: 76 years

Real GDP growth rate

6.59% (2022 est.)
3.29% (2021 est.)
3.55% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

6.86% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 5,085 km (2014)

standard gauge: 5,085 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 34.3% (2017 est.)

services: 54% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.15% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.59% (2023 est.)