Eritrea - ER - ERI - ERI - Africa

Last updated: April 16, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Leslie FRERIKSEN (since 18 July 2022)

embassy: 179 Alaa Street, Asmara

mailing address: 7170 Asmara Place, Washington DC  20521-7170

telephone: [291] (1) 12-00-04

FAX: [291] (1) 12-75-84

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 36.27% (male 1,145,134/female 1,130,829)

15-64 years: 59.73% (male 1,842,953/female 1,904,677)

65 years and over: 4% (2023 est.) (male 100,158/female 151,045)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Eritrea. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 39 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms

volcanism: Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Area comparison map

slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Military service age and obligation

Eritrea mandates military service for all citizens between the ages of 18 and 40; 18-month conscript service obligation, which includes 4-6 months of military training and 12 months of military or other national service (military service is most common); in practice, military and national service is often extended indefinitely; citizens up to the age of 55 eligible for recall during mobilization (2023)

note: as of 2020, women were estimated to make up as much as 30% of the Eritrean military


Eritrea won independence from Italian colonial control in 1941, but the UN only established it as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952, after a decade of British administrative control. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year conflict for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean fighters defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afwerki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been characterized by highly autocratic and repressive actions. His government has created a highly militarized society by instituting an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service -- divided between military and civilian service -- of indefinite length.

A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in 2000. Ethiopia rejected a subsequent 2007 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) demarcation. More than a decade of a tense “no peace, no war” stalemate ended in 2018 when the newly elected Ethiopian prime minister accepted the EEBC’s 2007 ruling, and the two countries signed declarations of peace and friendship. Eritrean leaders then engaged in intensive diplomacy around the Horn of Africa, bolstering regional peace, security, and cooperation, as well as brokering rapprochements between governments and opposition groups. In 2018, the UN Security Council lifted an arms embargo that had been imposed on Eritrea since 2009, after the UN Somalia-Eritrea Monitoring Group reported they had not found evidence of Eritrean support in recent years for al-Shabaab. The country’s rapprochement with Ethiopia led to a resumption of economic ties, but the level of air transport, trade, and tourism have remained roughly the same since late 2020.

The Eritrean economy remains agriculture-dependent, and the country is still one of Africa’s poorest nations. Eritrea faced new international condemnation and US sanctions in mid-2021 for its participation in the war in Ethiopia’s Tigray Regional State, where Eritrean forces were found to have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity. As most Eritrean troops were departing northern Ethiopia in January 2023, ISAIAS began a series of diplomatic engagements aimed at bolstering Eritrea’s foreign partnerships and regional influence. Despite the country's improved relations with its neighbors, ISAIAS has not let up on repression, and conscription and militarization continue.

Environment - current issues

deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement

Population below poverty line

50% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

zinc, copper, gold, clothing, stone grinders (2021)

Exports - partners

China 62%, South Korea 28.3% (2017)

Administrative divisions

6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); 'Anseba, Debub (South), Debubawi K'eyyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash-Barka, Ma'ikel (Central), Semienawi K'eyyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)

Agricultural products

sorghum, milk, vegetables, barley, cereals, pulses nes, roots/tubers nes, wheat, millet, beef

Military and security forces

Eritrean Defense Forces (EDF): Eritrean Ground Forces, Eritrean Navy, Eritrean Air Force (includes Air Defense Force); People's Militia (aka People's Army or Hizbawi Serawit) (2023)

note: police are responsible for maintaining internal security, but the government sometimes used the armed forces, reserves, demobilized soldiers, or civilian militia to meet domestic as well as external security requirements; the armed forces have authority to arrest and detain civilians


revenues: $633 million (2018 est.)

expenditures: $549 million (2018 est.)


name: Asmara

geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "they [women] made them unite," which according to Tigrinya oral tradition refers to the women of the four clans in the Asmara area who persuaded their menfolk to unite and defeat their common enemy; the name has also been translated as "live in peace"

Imports - commodities

machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods


hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands


2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km)


history: ratified by the Constituent Assembly 23 May 1997 (never implemented)

amendments: proposed by the president of Eritrea or by assent of at least one half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least an initial three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and, after one year, final passage by at least four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly

Exchange rates

nakfa (ERN) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
15.075 (2022 est.)
15.075 (2021 est.)
15.075 (2020 est.)
15.075 (2019 est.)
15.075 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 24 May 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term), according to the constitution; the only election held was on 24 May 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next postponed indefinitely)

election results: 1993: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, and Vanuatu


24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)


food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court (consists of 20 judges and organized into civil, commercial, criminal, labor, administrative, and customary sections)

judge selection and term of office: High Court judges appointed by the president

subordinate courts: regional/zonal courts; community courts; special courts; sharia courts (for issues dealing with Muslim marriage, inheritance, and family); military courts

Land boundaries

total: 1,840 km

border countries (3): Djibouti 125 km; Ethiopia 1,033 km; Sudan 682 km

Land use

agricultural land: 75.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 68.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 15.1% (2018 est.)

other: 9.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (Hagerawi Baito) (150 seats; 75 members directly elected by simple majority vote and 75 members indirectly elected by the ruling party; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to form a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely due to the war with Ethiopia, and as of 2023, there was no sitting legislative body

election results: NA


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 84.4%

female: 68.9% (2018)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

International organization participation


National holiday

Independence Day, 24 May (1991)


noun: Eritrean(s)

adjective: Eritrean

Natural resources

gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish

Geography - note

strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

Economic overview

largely agrarian economy with a significant mining sector; substantial fiscal surplus due to tight controls; high and vulnerable debts; increased Ethiopian trade and shared port usage decreasing prices; financial and economic data integrity challenges

Political parties and leaders

People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afwerki] (the only party recognized by the government)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Assab, Massawa


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Eritrea’s telecom sector operates under a state-owned monopoly for fixed and mobile services; as a result of such restrictions on competition, the country has the least developed telecommunications market in Africa; mobile penetration stands at only about 20%, while fixed-line internet use barely registers; this is exacerbated by the very low use of computers, with only about 4% of households having a computer, and most of these being in the capital, Asmara; the 3G network continues to rollout which provides basic internet access to a limited number of Eritreans who can afford the expensive services; investment in telecom infrastructure is still required to improve the quality of services; the government has embarked on a work program to do exactly that, specifically aimed at extending services to remote areas, improving the quality of services, and ensuring that more telecoms infrastructure is supported by solar power to compensate for the poor state of the electricity network (2022)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership is less than 2 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is just over 50 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 291 (2019)


dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: State of Eritrea

conventional short form: Eritrea

local long form: Hagere Ertra

local short form: Ertra

former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

etymology: the country name derives from the ancient Greek appellation "Erythra Thalassa" meaning Red Sea, which is the major water body bordering the country


Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan

Map references


Irrigated land

210 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Berhane Gebrehiwet SOLOMON (since 15 March 2011)

chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991

FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

email address and website:

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.813 billion (2017 est.)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating:

Tier 3 — Eritrea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so, therefore Eritrea remained on Tier 3; the government continued to have a policy or pattern of human trafficking; the government exploited its citizens in forced labor in its compulsory national service and citizen militia by forcing them to serve indefinitely or for arbitrary periods; officials directed policies that perpetuated mobilization of children for forced labor in public works projects, usually within the agricultural sector, during the student summer work program known as Maetot; the government did not demonstrate any efforts to address human trafficking (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic victims in Eritrea and abroad, and may exploit foreign victims in Eritrea; National Service is mandatory at age 18 and may take a variety of forms, including military service and physical labor but also the full range of government jobs, as well as teaching; the 18-month limit on compulsory national service was suspended since the 1998-2000 Eritrean-Ethiopian border conflict, blocking the demobilization of most individuals who are forced to serve indefinitely under threats of detention, torture, or familial reprisal; Eritreans who flee the country, usually with the aim of reaching Europe, seek the help of paid smugglers to evade Eritrea’s strict exit controls and are vulnerable to trafficking; Eritreans are subject to forced labor and sex trafficking mainly in Ethiopia, Libya, and Sudan; Eritrean military and security officials reportedly subject young women and girls to domestic servitude and sex trafficking, as well as committing human rights abuses and gender-based violence against women and girls in Tigray; Chinese nationals employed at worksites affiliated with China’s Belt and Road Initiative are vulnerable to forced labor, including in construction and mining (2023)

Total renewable water resources

7.32 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2015)


urban population: 43.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.67% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; 2 state-owned radio networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2023)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 73.2% of population

rural: 53.3% of population

total: 57.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 26.8% of population

rural: 46.7% of population

total: 42.2% of population (2015 est.)

National anthem

name: "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra" (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)

lyrics/music: SOLOMON Tsehaye Beraki/Isaac Abraham MEHAREZGI and ARON Tekle Tesfatsion

note: adopted 1993; upon independence from Ethiopia
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Eritrea. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.073 million ASMARA (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

National symbol(s)

camel; national colors: green, red, blue

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.3 years (2010 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Eritrea is a persistently poor country that has made progress in some socioeconomic categories but not in others. Education and human capital formation are national priorities for facilitating economic development and eradicating poverty. To this end, Eritrea has made great strides in improving adult literacy – doubling the literacy rate over the last 20 years – in large part because of its successful adult education programs. The overall literacy rate was estimated to be more than 75% in 2018; more work needs to be done to raise female literacy and school attendance among nomadic and rural communities. Subsistence farming fails to meet the needs of Eritrea’s growing population because of repeated droughts, dwindling arable land, overgrazing, soil erosion, and a shortage of farmers due to conscription and displacement. The government’s emphasis on spending on defense over agriculture and its lack of foreign exchange to import food also contribute to food insecurity.

Eritrea has been a leading refugee source country since at least the 1960s, when its 30-year war for independence from Ethiopia began. Since gaining independence in 1993, Eritreans have continued migrating to Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, Egypt, or Israel because of a lack of basic human rights or political freedom, educational and job opportunities, or to seek asylum because of militarization. Eritrea’s large diaspora has been a source of vital remittances, funding its war for independence and providing 30% of the country’s GDP annually since it became independent.

In the last few years, Eritreans have increasingly been trafficked and held hostage by Bedouins in the Sinai Desert, where they are victims of organ harvesting, rape, extortion, and torture. Some Eritrean trafficking victims are kidnapped after being smuggled to Sudan or Ethiopia, while others are kidnapped from within or around refugee camps or crossing Eritrea’s borders. Eritreans composed approximately 90% of the conservatively estimated 25,000-30,000 victims of Sinai trafficking from 2009-2013, according to a 2013 consultancy firm report.

Contraceptive prevalence rate


GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 6.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 10.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 77.9

youth dependency ratio: 70.8

elderly dependency ratio: 7.1

potential support ratio: 14 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years

Population distribution

density is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

population without electricity: 3 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 52.5% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 75.6% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 35.7% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,729 (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 44.5% of population

rural: 7.3% of population

total: 15.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 55.5% of population

rural: 92.7% of population

total: 84.3% of population (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups

Tigrinya 50%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Afar 4%, Kunama 4%, Bilen 3%, Hedareb/Beja 2%, Nara 2%, Rashaida 1% (2021 est.)

note: data represent Eritrea's nine recognized ethnic groups


Eritrean Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Evangelical Lutheran, Sunni Muslim


Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages

Imports - partners

UAE 14.5%, China 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 13.2%, Italy 12.9%, Turkey 5.6%, South Africa 4.6% (2017)

Disputes - international

Eritrea-Ethiopia: both agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement

Eritrea-Sudan: Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups

Eritrea-Djibouti: in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea


highest point: Soira 3,018 m

lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m

mean elevation: 853 m

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Current health expenditure

4.1% of GDP (2020)

Military and security service personnel strengths

limited available information; estimated 150,000-200,000 personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the EDF inventory is comprised primarily of older Russian and Soviet-era systems; Eritrea was under a UN arms embargo from 2009 to 2018; from the 1990s to 2008, Russia was the leading supplier of arms to Eritrea, and in recent years, Eritrea has expressed interest in purchasing additional Russian equipment; in 2022, it reportedly received some UAVs from Russia (2023)

Military - note

the military’s primary responsibilities are external defense, border security, and providing the regime a vehicle for national cohesion; the Army is the dominant service; it is a large, conscript-based force and estimated to have more than 20 infantry divisions, including some that are mechanized, as well as a division of commandos/special forces; the Air Force has a small number of Soviet-era combat aircraft and helicopters, while the Navy maintains a limited number of coastal patrol vessels 

since the country's independence in 1991, the Eritrean military has participated in numerous conflicts, including the Hanish Island Crisis with Yemen (1995), the First Congo War (1996-1997), the Second Sudanese Civil War (1996-1998), the Eritrea-Ethiopia War (1998-2000), the Djiboutian-Eritrean border conflict (2008), and the Tigray conflict in Ethiopia (2020-2022); during the Tigray conflict, the Eritrean Defense Forces were accused of widespread human rights abuses including executions, rape, and torture of civilians within Ethiopia (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 550 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 726,957 tons (2011 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 22.74 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.71 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.48 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Asmara: A Modernist African City


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 93.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.73 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

52.3% (2023 est.)

Labor force

1.749 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14.6% (2021 est.)

male: 13.1%

female: 16.4%

Net migration rate

-9.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 21 years (2023 est.)

male: 20.5 years

female: 21.5 years

Debt - external

$792.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$875.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

322 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$191.694 million (2019 est.)
$163.034 million (2018 est.)
$143.412 million (2017 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

3,897 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

131.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
132.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.5 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

10% of GDP (2019 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2018 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

5.97% (2022 est.)
6.51% (2021 est.)
6.45% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


6,274,796 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-9.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 792,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 22% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

798,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 798,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 117,600 sq km

land: 101,000 sq km

water: 16,600 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

34.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$9.702 billion (2017 est.)
$8.953 billion (2016 est.)
$8.791 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars


total: 16,000 km (2018)

paved: 1,600 km (2000)

unpaved: 14,400 km (2000)


10 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 47.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 33.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1.8 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9% (2017 est.)
9% (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$137 million (2017 est.)
-$105 million (2016 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,600 (2017 est.)
$1,500 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 7.5% (2020 est.)

male: 14.7% (2020 est.)

female: 0.2% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

5% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

3.217 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

26.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 228,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 394.46 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 61 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 9 (2023)

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 4

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$1.127 billion (2017 est.)
$1.048 billion (2016 est.)


$624.3 million (2017 est.)
$485.4 million (2016 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 66,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.42 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.51 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 67.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 64.6 years

female: 69.9 years

Real GDP growth rate

5% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

4.3% (2014 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 306 km (2018)

narrow gauge: 306 km (2018) 0.950-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.6% (2017 est.)

services: 58.7% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures


Population growth rate

1.08% (2023 est.)