Finland - FI - FIN - FIN - Europe

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas HICKEY (since 11 May 2022)

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14 B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: 5310 Helsinki Place, Washington DC  20521-5310

telephone: [358] (9) 616-250

FAX: [358] (9) 174-681

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.25% (male 466,311/female 446,015)

15-64 years: 60.5% (male 1,726,110/female 1,670,981)

65 years and over: 23.25% (2023 est.) (male 575,259/female 729,895)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Finland. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

severe winters in the north

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Area comparison map

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Military service age and obligation

at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 5.5-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard (length of service depends on the type of duty); women 18-29 may volunteer for service; there is also an option to perform non-military service which lasts for 8.5 or 11.5 months; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 50 for rank-and-file and 60 for non-commissioned and commissioned officers (2023)

note 1: the military trains approximately 21,000 conscripts each year; women have served on a voluntary basis since 1995, and as of 2022 made up about 19% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: Finland has had conscription since 1951

Environment - current issues

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

12.7% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 22.6% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, kaolin-coated paper, cars, lumber, stainless steel, wood pulp (2021)

Exports - partners

Germany 13%, Sweden 9%, United States 8%, Netherlands 6%, China 6% (2021)

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, rye, pork, poultry, beef

Military and security forces

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF; Puolustusvoimat): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2024)

note: the Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) and National Police are under the Ministry of the Interior; the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime


revenues: $140.643 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $153.635 billion (2020 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting


name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish helsing, an archaic name for "neck" (hals), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; fors refers to "rapids," so helsing fors meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2021)


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


1,250 km


history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2018

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander STUBB (since 1 March 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Petteri ORPO (since 20 June 2023)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); first round held on 28 January 2024 with a runoff on 11 February 2024 (next to be held by 28 January 2030); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: 2024:  Alexander STUBB elected in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Alexander STUBB (KoK) 27.2%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 25.8%, Jussi HALLA-AHO (PS) 19.0%, Olli REHN (Kesk) 15.3%; percent of vote in second round - STUBB 51.6%, HAAVISTO 48.4%

Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter


6 December 1917 (from Russia)


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km; Sweden 545 km; Russia 1,309 km

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held on 30 April 2027)

election results:
percent of vote by party/coalition - Kok 24%, PS 23%, SDP 21.5%. Center Party 11.5%, Vihr 6.5%, Vas 5.5%, SFP 4.5%, KD 2.5%, Aland 0.5%; Movement Now 0.5%; seats by party/coalition - Kok 48, PS 46, SDP 43, Center Party 23, Vihr 13, Vas 11, SFP 9, KD 5; Aland 1; Movement Now 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 108, women 92, percentage women 46%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNSOM, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Economic overview

highly industrialized, export-based EU economy and euro user; high per capita GDP; major timber, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries; manageable public debts; rigid labor laws impose higher regulatory burdens


1,288 km gas transmission pipes, 1,976 km distribution pipes (2016)

Political parties and leaders

Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Annika SAARIKKO]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Riikka PURRA]
Green League or Vihr [Sofia VIRTA]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
Movement Now or Liike Nyt [Harry HARKINO]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sanna MARIN]
Swedish People's Party or RKP or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamina, Inkoo (operational 2023), Pori, Tornio Manga


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Finland’s telecom market is among the more progressive in Europe, with operators having been at the forefront in deploying technologies and with the regulator being among the first to auction spectrum for 5G use; these efforts have been supported by the government which is working towards its target of providing a broadband service of at least 100Mb/s by 2025; 5G services were available to more than 40% of the population by early 2021, and take-up among subscribers has been strong although most will remain with LTE in the short term; the country enjoys one of the highest broadband and mobile subscription rates in the region, with customers able to make use of the latest iterations of technologies including DOCSIS3.1, LTE-A, 5G, and GPON fiber infrastructure; Finland has emerged as one of the pioneers in 5G; the auction of spectrum in the 700MHz and 3.5GHh bands has enabled network operators to extend the availability of LTE services nationally and to prepare for 5G services; Spectrum in the 2.5GHz band was auctioned in mid-2020 and has since enabled the MNOs to widen their 5G footprint considerably; there is an ongoing shift away from DSL to fiber and mobile networks (2021)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 subscriptions and nearly 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)


mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta (Finnish)/ Republiken Finland (Swedish)

local short form: Suomi (Finnish)/ Finland (Swedish)

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Map references


Irrigated land

80 sq km (2015)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mikko Tapani HAUTALA (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Internet country code



note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,175 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022); 66,195 (Ukraine) (as of 29 February 2024)

stateless persons: 3,546 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$282.896 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2016)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

110 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 20 years (2020)


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Finland. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.338 million HELSINKI (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

4.64 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 years (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

85.5% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.1

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 37.1

potential support ratio: 2.7 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 77

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,364,839 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 957.64 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

note: 90.9% of the population has a Finnish background (2022 est.)


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2022 est.)


Finnish (official) 85.9%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.7%, other 7.2% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Factbook, korvaamaton perustietolähde. (Finnish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Finnish audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 16%, Sweden 15%, Russia 11%, China 7%, Netherlands 7% (2021)

Disputes - international

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands


highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 164 m


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Current health expenditure

9.6% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Finnish Defense Forces (FDF) are focused primarily on territorial defense, which is based on having a large, trained reserve force created by general conscription; active-duty FDF units absorb and train more than 20,000 conscripts annually; the resulting pool of trained reservists gives the FDF a wartime strength of approximately 280,000 and a total reserve of some 900,000 citizens with military service; other FDF responsibilities include support to international peacekeeping operations and some domestic security duties, such as assisting the National Police in maintaining law and order in crises

the FDF is also focused on fulfilling its new commitment to NATO; following Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Finland reassessed its security policy situation and applied for NATO membership and gained entry in April 2023; as a member of the Alliance, Finland is part of NATO’s collective defense and is covered by the security guarantees enshrined in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty); Finland had been part of NATO’s Partnership for Peace program since 1994, and the FDF exercised with some NATO members and participated in NATO-led military missions in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq; Finland also is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy and actively participates in EU crisis management missions and operations; the FDF cooperates closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation structure (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden and involves cooperation in such areas as armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; Finland considers Sweden as its closest bi-lateral security partner; the UK and the US are also close defense partners; in 2022, Finland signed a mutual security agreement with the UK, and since 2014 has been part of the UK-led Joint Expeditionary Force, a pool of high-readiness military forces from 10 Baltic and Scandinavian countries designed to respond to a wide range of contingencies in the North Atlantic, Baltic Sea, and High North regions

the bulk of the FDF’s annual intake of conscripts go into the Army; in peacetime, the Army has five combat brigades, which include armored, jaeger/light infantry, and mechanized infantry forces, plus regiments of light infantry, special forces, and helicopter assault forces; the Navy has a mix of missile-armed patrol craft, fast patrol boats, and mine warfare vessels; it is slated to receive four multirole corvettes by 2029; the Navy also has a coastal defense brigade, which includes anti-ship missile and naval special operations forces and a naval infantry brigade maintained at cadre strength that incorporates about 1,500 conscripts annually; the Air Force has about 60 US-made F/A-18 multirole fighters, which are scheduled to be replaced by US-origin F-35 stealth multirole fighters beginning in 2025 (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 30,000 active-duty personnel (22,000 Army; 5,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2023)

note: active-duty figures include about 21,000 conscripts carrying out their obligated military service (approximately 17,000 Army; 3,500 Navy; 1,000 Air Force)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a wide mix of mostly modern US, European, Israeli, South Korean, and domestically produced weapons systems; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of arms; the Finnish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels; it also cooperates with other European countries and the US (2023)

Military deployments

165 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2024)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2.738 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 769,926 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.1% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 11.5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 5.47 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.87 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.46 megatons (2020 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Saimaa - 1,760 sq km; Paijanne - 1,090 sq km; Inarijarvi - 1,000 sq km; Oulujarvi - 900 sq km; Pielinen - 850 sq km

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Fortress of Suomenlinna (c); Old Rauma (c); Petäjävesi Old Church (c); Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (c); Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (c); High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago (n); Struve Geodetic Arc (c)

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.1% (2017 est.)


15 (2024)


production: 762,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.552 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 101,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.661 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 33.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 11.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 23.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 17.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2.393 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 181.143 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.569 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 8,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 207,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 232,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

57.2% (2023 est.)


0.21% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.23% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.22% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 5 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 4.39GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 32.8% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 41.3% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Demographic profile

Finland has a relatively high fertility rate for Europe at about 1.75 children per woman in 2023.  Finnish women have high labor force participation rates, and their educational attainment is higher than that of Finnish men. Finland’s family policy, like other Nordic countries, puts an emphasis on reconciling work and family life.  Both parents can stay at home with an earnings-based allowance until the baby is about 11 months old.  Finland also has a publicly subsidized childcare system.  Alternatively, parents can choose to take care of a small child through home care leave with a flat allowance rate.  These benefits have encouraged fathers to do a greater share of housework and childcare, although women still perform the lion’s share of domestic work.  In other instances, women have reduced the burden of household work by outsourcing domestic chores, rather than men taking on more of the responsibilities.  Finland has high family size ideals compared to other European countries, and childlessness and one-child families are not favored.  The proportion of couples having at least three children has been growing since the 1970s.

Finland has historically been a country of emigration.  In the 20th century, Finns emigrated largely in two waves.  Before World War II, the majority of Finns went to North America, and after World War II most went to Sweden, where industrialization was generating much-needed jobs that offered higher salaries and a better standard of living.  In the 1980s and early 1990s, Finnish returnees (mainly from Sweden) began to outnumber Finnish emigrants.  Also arriving in Finland between April 1990 and 2010, were Ingrian Finns – descendants of ethnic Finns who settled near St. Petersburg, Russia, in the 17th century – who immigrated to Finland under the Right of Return Law.  In addition, the country has absorbed immigrants from Russia, Estonia, the former Yugoslavia, and Sweden for a variety of reasons, most commonly for marriage and family reunification.  Finland has also accepted refugees and asylum seekers from Somalia, Iraq, China, and Thailand.


total global geoparks and regional networks: 4 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Impact Crater Lake - Lappajarvi; Rokua; Lauhanvuori-Haemeenkangas; Saimaa; Salpausselka (2024)

Labor force

2.846 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.1% (2021 est.)

male: 19%

female: 17.1%

Net migration rate

2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 43.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 41.7 years

female: 44.8 years

Debt - external

$631.549 billion (2019 est.)
$536.301 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$16.036 billion (2022 est.)
$16.744 billion (2021 est.)
$13.48 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


8,000 km (2013) (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways

Refined petroleum products - imports

122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
2% of GDP (2022)
1.9% of GDP (2021)
1.5% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

6.72% (2022 est.)
7.61% (2021 est.)
7.76% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


5,614,571 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 5.115 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

41.996 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 9.377 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.737 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

20.65% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$274.576 billion (2022 est.)
$270.247 billion (2021 est.)
$261.941 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 108,637 km (2019)

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

urban: 26,000 km (2012)


98 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.15 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

27.1 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.12% (2022 est.)
2.19% (2021 est.)
0.29% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

-$7.318 billion (2022 est.)
$1.222 billion (2021 est.)
$1.734 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$49,400 (2022 est.)
$48,800 (2021 est.)
$47,400 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1.846 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 21.6% (2020 est.)

male: 26.9% (2020 est.)

female: 16.3% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.2% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

216.571 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 20.418 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 79.356 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 6.666 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 21.615 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.574 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 282 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 9, general cargo 75, oil tanker 4, other 194

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$134.721 billion (2022 est.)
$116.72 billion (2021 est.)
$97.037 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$127.83 billion (2022 est.)
$116.762 billion (2021 est.)
$97.42 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 186,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.76 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.1 years

female: 85 years

Real GDP growth rate

1.6% (2022 est.)
3.17% (2021 est.)
-2.35% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

0.04% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 5,918 km (2020) 3,349 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.36% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.22% (2023 est.)


Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union, albeit with some loss of territory. During the next half-century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per-capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high-quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system, although the system is currently facing the challenges of an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy. Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Finland opted to join NATO; it became the organization's 31st member in April 2023.