Fiji - FJ - FJI - FIJ - Australia and Oceania

Last updated: April 17, 2024
Fiji flag
Fiji locator map
Fiji map

Fiji Images

Fiji Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marie DAMOUR (since 24 November 2022); note - also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu

embassy: 158 Princes Road, Tamavua, Suva

mailing address: 4290 Suva Place, Washington DC  20521-4290

telephone: [679] 331-4466

FAX: [679] 330-2267

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.17% (male 121,809/female 116,737)

15-64 years: 66.31% (male 321,448/female 307,026)

65 years and over: 8.52% (2023 est.) (male 37,219/female 43,521)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Fiji. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

18 00 S, 175 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2023)

Environment - current issues

the widespread practice of waste incineration is a major contributor to air pollution in the country, as are vehicle emissions in urban areas; deforestation and soil erosion are significant problems; a contributory factor to erosion is clearing of land by bush burning, a widespread practice that threatens biodiversity

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

24.1% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 24.2% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

water, fuel wood, gold, sugar, refined petroleum, fish (2021)

Exports - partners

United States 34%, Australia 14%, China 7%, New Zealand 7%, Tonga 4% (2021)

Administrative divisions

14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, taro, poultry, vegetables, coconuts, eggs, milk, ginger, sweet potatoes

Military and security forces

Republic of Fiji Military Force (RFMF): Land Force Command, Maritime Command (2024)

note: the RFMF is subordinate to the president as the commander-in-chief, while the Fiji Police Force reports to the Ministry of Defense, National Security, and Policing


revenues: $885 million (2020 est.)

expenditures: $1.515 billion (2020 est.)


name: Suva (on Viti Levu)

geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "little hill" in the native Fijian (iTaukei) language and refers to a mound where a temple once stood

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, aircraft, cars, dentistry devices, broadcasting equipment (2021)


tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation


1,129 km


history: several previous; latest signed into law 6 September 2013

amendments: proposed as a bill by Parliament and supported by at least three quarters of its members, followed by referral to the president and then to the Electoral Commission, which conducts a referendum; passage requires approval by at least three-quarters of registered voters and assent by the president

Exchange rates

Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.201 (2022 est.)
2.071 (2021 est.)
2.169 (2020 est.)
2.16 (2019 est.)
2.087 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA (since 24 December 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October 2021 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister endorsed by the president

election results: 2021: Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE elected president; Wiliame KATONIVERE (People's Alliance) 28 votes, Teimumu KEPA (SODELPA) 23 votes

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific Ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion, holding a coconut pod between its paws, above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, a banana bunch, and a white dove of peace


10 October 1970 (from the UK)


tourism, sugar processing, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70, but this requirement may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years, with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 55.7% (2018 est.)

other: 21% (2018 est.)

Legal system

common law system based on the English model

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (55 seats; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote with a 5% electoral threshold; members serve 4-year terms)

last held on 14 December 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
percent of vote by party - FijiFirst 42.5%, People's Alliance 35.8%, NFP 8.9%, SODELPA 5.1%, other 7.7%; seats by party - FijiFirst 26, People's Alliance 21, NFP 5, SODELPA 3; composition as of February 2024 - men 50, women 5, percentage women 9.1%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

International organization participation


National holiday

Fiji (Independence) Day, 10 October (1970)


noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Natural resources

timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

Geography - note

consists of 332 islands, approximately 110 of which are inhabited, and more than 500 islets

Economic overview

upper-middle income, tourism-based Pacific island economy; susceptible to ocean rises; key energy and infrastructure investments; post-pandemic tourism resurgence; improved debt standing; limited workforce

Political parties and leaders

Fiji First [Voroqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA]
Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]
Freedom Alliance [Jagath KARUNARATNE] (formerly Fiji United Freedom Party or FUFP)
National Federation Party or NFP [Biman PRASAD] (primarily Indian)
People's Alliance [Sitiveni RABUKA]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Lynda TABUYA]
Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Lenaitasi DURU, general secretary]
Unity Fiji [Savenaca NARUBE]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Lautoka, Levuka, Suva


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Fiji is the leading market to watch in terms of both LTE and 5G development in the region; the market boasts relatively sophisticated, advanced digital infrastructure, with telcos’ heavy investment resulting in the country having the highest mobile and internet subscriptions in the Pacific Islands region; LTE, LTE-A, and fiber technologies have received the most investment by the Fijian mobile operators, LTE now accounts for the largest share of connections in the mobile segment; concentrating on the more highly populated areas, the operators are preparing for the next growth area of high-speed data; they also have 5G in mind, and are preparing their networks to be 5G-ready, anticipating an easier migration to the technology based on the relatively high LTE subscription rate; Fiji presents a challenging geographic environment for infrastructure development due to its population being spread across more than 100 islands; the majority of Fijians live on the two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu; in July 2018, the two islands were linked by the Savusavu submarine cable system, which provides a more secure link in times of emergency weather events such as the regular tropical cyclones that often cause massive destruction to the area, including destroying essential infrastructure such as electricity and telecommunications equipment; notably, the December 2021 eruption of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano in Tonga damaged the Tonga Cable which connects Fiji, and Tonga blocking the latter off from internet services; cable theft and damage of critical communications infrastructure has also become a concern in Fiji, prompting authorities to establish a joint task force to tackle the issue (2022)

domestic: fixed-line nearly 5 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 679; landing points for the ICN1, SCCN, Southern Cross NEXT, Tonga Cable and Tui-Samoa submarine cable links to US, NZ, Australia and Pacific islands of Fiji, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Fallis & Futuna, and American Samoa; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)


mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Fiji

conventional short form: Fiji

local long form: Republic of Fiji (English)/ Matanitu ko Viti (Fijian)

local short form: Fiji (English)/ Viti (Fijian)

etymology: the Fijians called their home Viti, but the neighboring Tongans called it Fisi, and in the Anglicized spelling of the Tongan pronunciation - promulgated by explorer Captain James COOK - the designation became Fiji


Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references


Irrigated land

40 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Aporosa BABAKOBUA

chancery: 1707 L Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (917) 208-4560

FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325

email address and website:

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.98 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

28.55 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


urban population: 58.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel; Digicel Fiji operates the Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 89.1% of population

total: 94.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 10.9% of population

total: 5.7% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "God Bless Fiji"

lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)

note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Fiji. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

178,000 SUVA (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

0.86 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2 beds/1,000 population (2016)

National symbol(s)

Fijian canoe; national color: light blue

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 29% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53

youth dependency ratio: 44.2

elderly dependency ratio: 8.7

potential support ratio: 11.4 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: at least 5 years residency out of the 10 years preceding application

Population distribution

approximately 70% of the population lives on the island of Viti Levu; roughly half of the population lives in urban areas

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 92.1% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 96% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 86.7% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,670,216 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 106.83 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indo-Fijian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese) (2007 est.)

note: a 2010 law replaces 'Fijian' with 'iTaukei' when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji


Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)


English (official), iTaukei (official), Fiji Hindi (official)

Imports - partners

New Zealand 18%, China 16%, Singapore 14%, Australia 13%, United States 9% (2021)

Disputes - international

Fiji-Tonga: Fiji does not recognize Tonga’s 1972 claim to the Minerva Reefs and their surrounding waters


highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

35.5% (2021)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

established in 1920, the RFMF is a small and lightly-armed force with a history of intervening in the country’s politics, including coups in 1987 and 2006, and a mutiny in 2000, and it continues to have significant political power; the RFMF is responsible for external security but can be assigned some domestic security responsibilities in specific circumstances; it also has a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping operations, having sent troops on nearly 20 such missions since first deploying personnel  to South Lebanon in 1978; these deployments have offered experience and a source of financial support; the RFMF has an infantry regiment and a small naval element comprised of patrol boats

Fiji has a "shiprider" agreement with the US, which allows local maritime law enforcement officers to embark on US Coast Guard (USCG) and US Navy (USN) vessels, including to board and search vessels suspected of violating laws or regulations within Fiji's designated exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or on the high seas; "shiprider" agreements also enable USCG personnel and USN vessels with embarked USCG law enforcement personnel to work with host nations to protect critical regional resources (2023)


total population: 99.1%

male: 99.1%

female: 99.1% (2018)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 4,000 active personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the RFMF is lightly armed and equipped; Australia has provided patrol boats and a few armored personnel carriers; it also provides logistical support for RFMF regional or UN operations; in recent years, China has provided construction equipment and military vehicles (2024)

Military deployments

170 Egypt (MFO); 160 Iraq (UNAMI); 150 Golan Heights (UNDOF) (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 189,390 tons (2011 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 10,322 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.5% (2013 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.36 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.95 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Levuka Historical Port Town


2 (2024)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 41.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 50.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 11,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0.2%

women married by age 18: 4%

men married by age 18: 1.7% (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.09 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

58.8% (2023 est.)


9.21% of GDP (2022 est.)
9.14% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.16% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

382,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.1% (2021 est.)

male: 14.1%

female: 25.9%

Net migration rate

-5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 31.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 31 years

female: 31.5 years

Debt - external

$1.022 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$696.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

38 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.557 billion (2022 est.)
$1.518 billion (2021 est.)
$1.082 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


203 km (2012) (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges)

Refined petroleum products - imports

17,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

48.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.23 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.56% (2022 est.)
4.8% (2021 est.)
4.73% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


947,760 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 809,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 88% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.691 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 18,274 sq km

land: 18,274 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

15.87% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$11.518 billion (2022 est.)
$9.597 billion (2021 est.)
$10.09 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 7,500 km (2023)


26 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 990,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

30.7 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.52% (2022 est.)
0.16% (2021 est.)
-2.6% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$865.665 million (2022 est.)
-$686.577 million (2021 est.)
-$614.13 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$12,400 (2022 est.)
$10,400 (2021 est.)
$11,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 23,062 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 23.1% (2020 est.)

male: 35.6% (2020 est.)

female: 10.5% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

30.2% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

32.901 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

16.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 393,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,022,955,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 90 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 74 (2023)

by type: general cargo 21, oil tanker 4, other 49

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

4.6% (2021) NA


$3.434 billion (2022 est.)
$2.344 billion (2021 est.)
$1.977 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$2.376 billion (2022 est.)
$1.171 billion (2021 est.)
$1.23 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 48,510 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.64 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.79 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.5 years (2023 est.)

male: 71.9 years

female: 77.3 years

Real GDP growth rate

20.02% (2022 est.)
-4.88% (2021 est.)
-17.04% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

5.7% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 597 km (2008)

narrow gauge: 597 km (2008) 0.600-m gauge

note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.4% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.59% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.42% (2023 est.)


Austronesians settled Fiji around 1000 B.C., followed by successive waves of Melanesians starting around the first century A.D. Fijians traded with Polynesian groups in Samoa and Tonga, and by about A.D. 900, much of Fiji was in the Tu’i Tongan Empire’s sphere of influence. The Tongan influence declined significantly by 1200, while Melanesian seafarers continued to periodically arrive in Fiji, further mixing Melanesian and Polynesian cultural traditions. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to spot Fiji in 1643, followed by British explorer James COOK in 1774. Captain William BLIGH plotted the islands in 1789. In the 1800s, merchants, traders, and whalers frequented the islands, and the first missionaries arrived in 1835. Rival kings and chiefs competed for power, at times aided by Europeans and their weapons, and in 1865, Seru Epenisa CAKOBAU united many groups into the Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti. The arrangement proved weak, and in 1871 CAKOBAU formed the Kingdom of Fiji in an attempt to centralize power. Fearing a hostile takeover by a foreign power as the kingdom’s economy began to falter, CAKOBAU ceded Fiji to the UK in 1874.

The first British governor set up a plantation-style economy and brought in more than 60,000 Indians as indentured laborers, most of whom chose to stay in Fiji rather than return to India when their contracts expired. In the early 1900s, society was divided along ethnic lines, with iTaukei (indigenous Fijians), Europeans, and Indo-Fijians living in separate areas and maintaining their own languages and traditions. ITaukei fears of an Indo-Fijian takeover of government delayed independence through the 1960s; Fiji achieved independence in 1970 with agreements to allocate parliamentary seats by ethnic groups. After two coups in 1987, a new constitution in 1990 cemented iTaukei control of politics, leading thousands of Indo-Fijians to leave. A reformed constitution in 1997 was more equitable and led to the election of an Indo-Fijian prime minister in 1999, who was ousted in a coup the following year. In 2005, the new prime minister put forward a bill that would grant pardons to the coup perpetrators, leading Commodore Josaia Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA to launch a coup in 2006. BAINIMARAMA appointed himself prime minister in 2007 and retained the position after elections in 2014 and 2018 that international observers deemed credible. BAINIMARAMA's party lost control of the prime minister position after elections in 2022 -- former opposition leader Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA won the office by one vote and leads a coalition with a slim, three-seat parliamentary margin.

With relatively well-developed infrastructure, Fiji has become a hub for the Pacific, hosting the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat and the main campus of the University of the South Pacific. In addition, Fiji is a center for Pacific tourism, and Nadi International Airport is by far the busiest airport in a Pacific island country.