Guinea - GN - GIN - GUI - Africa

Last updated: April 15, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Troy Damian FITRELL (since January 2022)

embassy: Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry

mailing address: 2110 Conakry Place, Washington DC  20521-2110

telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00

FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.96% (male 2,809,865/female 2,763,294)

15-64 years: 55.05% (male 3,741,047/female 3,749,281)

65 years and over: 4% (2023 est.) (male 245,323/female 298,439)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Guinea. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 10 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Oregon; slightly larger than twice the size of Pennsylvania

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary and selective conscripted service; 9-12 months of service (2023)


Guinea's deep Muslim heritage arrived via the neighboring Almoravid Empire in the 11th century. Following Almoravid decline, Guinea existed on the fringe of several African kingdoms, all competing for regional dominance. In the 13th century, the Mali Empire took control of Guinea, encouraging its already growing Muslim faith. After the fall of the West African empires, various smaller kingdoms controlled Guinea. In the 18th century, Fulani Muslims established an Islamic state in central Guinea that represents one of the earliest examples of a written constitution and alternating leadership. While European traders first arrived in the 16th century, it was the French who secured colonial rule in the 19th century.

In 1958, Guinea achieved independence from France. Sekou TOURE became Guinea’s first post-independence president; he established a dictatorial regime and ruled until his death in 1984, after which General Lansana CONTE staged a coup and seized the government. He too established an authoritarian regime and manipulated presidential elections until his death in December 2008, when Captain Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seized power, and suspended the constitution. In September 2009, presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally, killing more than 150 people in Conakry, the capital. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. In 2010 and 2013 respectively, the country held its first free and fair presidential and legislative elections. Alpha CONDE won the 2010 and 2015 presidential elections. CONDE's first cabinet was the first all-civilian government in Guinean history. In March 2020, Guinea passed a new constitution in a national referendum that changed presidential term limit rules. CONDE argued that, given this change, he was allowed to run for a third term, which he then won in October 2020. On 5 September 2021, Col Mamady DOUMBOUYA led special forces troops in a successful military coup, ousting and detaining CONDE and establishing the National Committee for Reconciliation and Development (CNRD). DOUMBOUYA and the CNRD suspended the constitution and dissolved the government and the legislature. DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transition president on 1 October 2021, and appointed Mohamed BEAVOGUI as transition prime minister a week later. BEAVOGUI subsequently formed a largely technocratic cabinet. The National Transition Council (CNT), which acts as the legislative body for the transition, was formed on 22 January 2022. The 81-member CNT is led by Dr. Dansa KOUROUMA and consists of appointed members representing a broad swath of Guinean society.


Environment - current issues

deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices lead to environmental damage; water pollution; improper waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

43.7% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.1% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum ores and oxide, iron ores, cocoa beans, cashews, frozen fish (2021)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 39%, China 36%, India 6% (2019)

Administrative divisions

7 regions administrative (administrative regions) and 1 gouvenorat (governorate)*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore

Agricultural products

rice, cassava, groundnuts, maize, oil palm fruit, fonio, plantains, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, vegetables

Military and security forces

National (or Guinean) Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee), Presidential Security Battalion (Battailon Autonome de la Sécurité Presidentielle, BASP), Gendarmerie (2023)

note: the National Gendarmerie is overseen by the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police is under the Ministry of Security; the Gendarmerie and National Police share responsibility for internal security, but only the Gendarmerie can arrest police or military officials


revenues: $1.949 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $2.014 billion (2019 est.)


name: Conakry

geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from the fusion of the name Cona, a Baga wine and cheese producer who lived on Tombo Island (the original site of the present-day capital), and the word nakiri, which in Susu means "the other bank" or "the other side"; supposedly, Baga's palm grove produced the best wine on the island and people traveling to sample his vintage, would say: "I am going to Cona, on the other bank (Cona-nakiri)," which over time became Conakry

Imports - commodities

rice, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, cars (2019)


generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds


320 km


history: previous 1958, 1990; 2010 and a referendum in 2020, which was suspended on 5 September 2021 via a coup d’etat; on 27 September, the Transitional Charter was released, which supersedes the constitution until a new constitution is promulgated

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote; revised in 2020

Exchange rates

Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
9,565.082 (2020 est.)
9,183.876 (2019 est.)
9,011.134 (2018 est.)
9,088.319 (2017 est.)
8,967.927 (2016 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA (since 1 October 2021); note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 1 October 2021, DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

head of government: Prime Minister Mamadou Oury BAH (since 29 February 2024); note - on 19 February 2024, Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government of Prime Minister Bernard GOUMOU; on 27 February 2024, Guinea's military leaders appointed Mamadou Oury BAH as prime minister

cabinet: formerly the Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 5 September 2021, the military arrested and detained the president, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the government and legislature

elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) and the prime minister appointed by the president; election last held on 18 October 2020; note - a new election timetable has not been announced by the transitional government

election results: 2020: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal


2 October 1958 (from France)


bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, 10 councilors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court - suspended on 5 September 2021

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve 9-year terms until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; Court of Account (Court of Auditors); Courts of First Instance (Tribunal de Premiere Instance); labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts

Land boundaries

total: 4,046 km

border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km; Guinea-Bissau 421 km; Liberia 590 km; Mali 1062 km; Senegal 363 km; Sierra Leone 794 km

Land use

agricultural land: 58.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 43.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 26.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.4% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system based on the French model

Legislative branch

description: formerly the People's National Assembly; note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 22 January 2022, an 81-member Transitional National Council was installed; on 19 February 2024 Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government

81 members to the Transitional National Council were appointed by the transitional president Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA on 22 January 2022; elections for a permanent legislature had not been announced as of late January 2022; on 19 February 2024 Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government

election results:
81 members of the National Transitional Council appointed on 22 January 2022 by the transitional president; the members represent all of the country's socio-professional organizations and political parties


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 45.3%

male: 61.2%

female: 31.3% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

International organization participation


National holiday

Independence Day, 2 October (1958)


noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Natural resources

bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Geography - note

the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands

Economic overview

growing but primarily agrarian West African economy; major mining sector; improving fiscal and debt balances prior to COVID-19; economy increasingly vulnerable to climate change; slow infrastructure improvements; gender wealth and human capital gaps

Political parties and leaders

African Congress for Democracy and Renewal or CADRE [Daniel KOLIE]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARN [Pepe Koulemou KOULEMOU]
Alliance for National Renewal or ARENA [Sekou Koureissy CONDE]
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
Citizen Generation or GECI [Mohamed SOUMAH]
Citizen Party for the Defense of Collective Interests or PCDIC [Hamidou BARRY]
Democratic Alliance for Renewal or ADR [Alpha Oumar Taran DIALLO]
Democratic National Movement or MND [Ousmane DORE]
Democratic Union for Renewal and Progress or UDRP [Edouard Zoutomou KPOGHOMOU]
Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]
Democratic People's Movement of Guinea or MPDG [Siaka BARRY]
Democratic Workers' Party of Guinea or PDTG [Talibi Dos CAMARA]
Front for the National Alliance or FAN [Makale CAMARA]
Generation for Reconciliation Union and Prosperity or GRUP [Papa Koly KOUROUMA]
Guinea for Democracy and Balance or GDE [Aboubacar SOUMAH]
Guinean Party for Peaceful Coexistence and Development or PGCD [Nene Moussa Maleya CAMARA]
Guinean Party for Solidarity and Democracy or PGSD [Elie KAMANO]
Guinean Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Francis HABA]
Guinean Rally for Development or RGD [Abdoul Kabele CAMARA]
Guinean Rally for Unity and Development or RGUD [Abraham BOURE]
Guinean Renaissance Party or PGR [Ibrahima Sory CONDE]
Modern Guinea [Thierno Yaya DIALLO]
Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Abdoulaye DIALLO]
National Committee for Reconciliation and Development [Colonel Mamady DOUMBOUYA]
National Front for Development or FND [Alhousseine Makanera KAKE]
National Union for Prosperity or UNP [Alpha Mady SOUMAH]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
New Democratic Forces or NFD [Mouctar DIALLO]
New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Abbe SYLLA]
New Guinea or NG [Mohamed CISSE]
New Political Generation or NGP [Badra KONE]
Party for Progress and Change or PPC [Aboubacar Biro SOUMAH]
Party of Citizen Action through Labor or PACT [Makale TRAORE]
Party of Democrats for Hope or PADES [Ousmane KABA]
Party of Freedom and Progress or PLP [Laye Souleymane DIALLO]
Party of Hope for National Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for Renaissance and Development or RRD [Abdoulaye KOUROUMA]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG (vacant)
Rally for the Integrated Development of Guinea or RDIG [Jean Marc TELIANO]
Rally for the Republic or RPR [Diabaty DORE]
Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
Union for the Defense of Republican Interests or UDIR [Bouya KONATE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jacques GBONIMY]
Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Mamadou Baadiko BAH]
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Democrats for the Renaissance of Guinea or UDRG [Amadou Oury BAH]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Unity and Progress Party or PUP [Fode BANGOURA]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the number of mobile subscribers grew strongly while revenue also increased steadily; fixed broadband services are still very limited and expensive, though there have been some positive developments in recent years; the landing of the first international submarine cable in 2012, and the setting up of an IXP in mid-2013, increased the bandwidth available to the ISPs, and helped reduce the cost of internet services for end-users; a National Backbone Network was completed in mid-2020, connecting administrative centers across the country; almost all internet connections are made via mobile networks; GSM services account for a dwindling proportion of connections, in line with the greater reach of services based on 3G and LTE (2022)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is just over 105 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)


generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Guinea

conventional short form: Guinea

local long form: Republique de Guinee

local short form: Guinee

former: French Guinea

etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel


Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Map references


Irrigated land

950 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Fatoumata KABA (since 19 April 2023) 


chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800

email address and website:

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note:  on 20 September 2023, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated a Travel Health Alert for a diphtheria outbreak in several states in Guinea; vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease; if you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines; before travel, discuss the need for a booster dose with your healthcare professional; diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria that make a toxin from which people get very sick; diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person through respiratory droplets like from coughing or sneezing; people can also get sick from touching open sores or ulcers of people sick with diphtheria (see attached map)
Diphtheria outbreak in Guinea.
Diphtheria outbreak in Guinea. Map courtesy of CDC.

GDP (official exchange rate)

$20.999 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Total renewable water resources

226 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 10 years

female: 8 years (2014)


urban population: 38.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Government maintains control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a dozen private television stations; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services 


Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 76.9% of population

total: 85.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 23.1% of population

total: 14.8% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Guinea. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

2.111 million CONAKRY (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

National symbol(s)

elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.9 years (2018 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Demographic profile

Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman as of 2022 because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.

Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile "Parrot’s Beak" region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

10.9% (2018)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 6.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 18.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 21.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.9% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 82.4

youth dependency ratio: 76.3

elderly dependency ratio: 6.1

potential support ratio: 16.3 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: na

Population distribution

areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

population without electricity: 7 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 46.8% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 89.8% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 21.2% (2021)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 90.9% of population

rural: 38.7% of population

total: 58% of population

unimproved: urban: 9.1% of population

rural: 61.3% of population

total: 42% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2%, Toma 1.6%, other/foreign 0.4% (2018 est.)


Muslim 89.1%, Christian 6.8%, animist 1.6%, other 0.1%, none 2.4% (2014 est.)


French (official), Pular, Maninka, Susu, other native languages

note: about 40 languages are spoken; each ethnic group has its own language

Imports - partners

China 39%, India 8%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5%, United Arab Emirates 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

Guinea-Liberia: the border is not disputed and there is joint border management, although the border is porous and there have been occasional disputes relating to military encroachments and use of the boundary rivers

Guinea-Mali: the border is not disputed, although there have been periodic clashes between border communities over land rights and access to natural resources


highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 472 m

Current health expenditure

4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Guinean military is a small and lightly armed force that is responsible for external defense, but also has some domestic security responsibilities and has historically been involved in suppressing public protests; the military has undergone some attempts at reform since 2010, but in 2021 the Army’s special forces led a successful coup; the Army has a small mix infantry, light armor, commando, and special forces battalions, as well as a presidential guard force; piracy and natural resource protection in the Gulf of Guinea are key areas of concern for the small Navy, which possesses only a few patrol boats; the Air Force has a handful of serviceable aircraft, including helicopter gunships (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 12,000 active personnel, including about 1,500 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Guinean military consists largely of aging and outdated (mostly Soviet-era) equipment; in recent years, it has received small amounts of equipment from China, France, and South Africa (2023)

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - about 1.22 million people are projected to be in need of food assistance between June and August 2022, primarily due to food access constraints on account of the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (2022)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 230 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 600 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 596,911 tons (1996 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 29,846 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5% (2005 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 37.57 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 3 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.13 megatons (2020 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km), Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambie (Gambia) river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 17%

women married by age 18: 46.5%

men married by age 18: 1.9% (2018 est.)


1 (2024)

Illicit drugs



production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 22.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 77.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 19,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

2.37 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

68.7% (2023 est.)


2.51% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.14% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.16% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

4.268 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 8.2% (2021 est.)

male: 7%

female: 9.2%

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 19.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 19.1 years

female: 19.6 years

Debt - external

$1.458 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

553 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.499 billion (2020 est.)
$1.379 billion (2019 est.)
$1.242 billion (2018 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


1,300 km (2011) (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system)

Refined petroleum products - imports

18,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.82 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

5.53% (2022 est.)
5.97% (2021 est.)
6.06% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


13,607,249 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 4.9 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 35% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

2.981 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.981 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 245,857 sq km

land: 245,717 sq km

water: 140 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.408 billion (2022 est.)
$35.729 billion (2021 est.)
$34.388 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 44,301 km

paved: 3,346 km

unpaved: 40,955 km (2018)


16 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 48.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 53 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 43.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 13.795 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2020 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

29.6 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

10.49% (2022 est.)
12.6% (2021 est.)
10.6% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$3.35 billion (2022 est.)
$4.639 billion (2021 est.)
$2.685 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$2,700 (2022 est.)
$2,600 (2021 est.)
$2,600 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.01 (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

7.7% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

4.133 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

35.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 992,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1.781 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 280 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 2 (2023)

by type: other 2

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

16.3% (2018)


$5.749 billion (2022 est.)
$5.353 billion (2021 est.)
$6.314 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$8.898 billion (2022 est.)
$10.266 billion (2021 est.)
$8.996 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 0 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0 (2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 64.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 62.4 years

female: 66.2 years

Real GDP growth rate

4.7% (2022 est.)
3.9% (2021 est.)
4.92% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

4.7% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 1,086 km (2017)

standard gauge: 279 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 807 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.1% (2017 est.)

services: 48.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

4.81% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

2.75% (2023 est.)