Greece - GR - GRC - GRE - Europe

Last updated: March 18, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George James TSUNIS (since 10 May 2022)

embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens

mailing address: 7100 Athens Place, Washington DC  20521-7100

telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951

FAX: [30] (210) 724-5313

email address and website:
athensamericancitizenservices@state.gov

https://gr.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.02% (male 758,311/female 713,794)

15-64 years: 62.66% (male 3,285,484/female 3,292,524)

65 years and over: 23.31% (2023 est.) (male 1,086,188/female 1,361,294)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Greece. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 22 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Heliports

51 (2024)

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes

volcanism: Santorini (367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active


Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Alabama
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Alabama


Military service age and obligation

19-45 years of age for compulsory military service for men; 12-month obligation for all services (note - as an exception, the duration of the full military service is 9 instead of 12 months if conscripts, after the initial training, serve the entire remaining time in certain areas of the eastern borders, in Cyprus, or in certain military units); 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women (2023)

note 1: compulsory service applies to any individual whom the Greek authorities consider to be Greek, regardless of whether the individual considers himself Greek, has a foreign citizenship and passport, or was born or lives outside of Greece; Greek citizens living permanently outside of Greece have the right to postpone their conscription; they are permanently exempted from their military obligations when they reach the age of 45 years old

note 2:
up to 50% of the Greek military is comprised of conscripts

note 3: as of 2020, women comprised approximately 16% of the military's full-time personnel

Background

Greece won independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830 and became a kingdom. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. The communists were defeated in 1949, and Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a military coup forced the king to flee the country. The ensuing military dictatorship collapsed in 1974, and Greece abolished the monarchy to become a parliamentary republic.

In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. From 2009 until 2019, Greece suffered a severe economic crisis due to nearly a decade of chronic overspending and structural rigidities. Beginning in 2010, Greece entered three bailout agreements -- the first two with the European Commission, the European Central Bank, and the IMF; and the third in 2015 with the European Stability Mechanism -- worth in total about $300 billion. The Greek Government formally exited the third bailout in 2018, and Greece's economy has since improved significantly. In 2022, the country finalized its early repayment to the IMF and graduated on schedule from the EU's enhanced surveillance framework.

Environment - current issues

air pollution; air emissions from transport and electricity power stations; water pollution; degradation of coastal zones; loss of biodiversity in terrestrial and marine ecosystems; increasing municipal and industrial waste

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Population below poverty line

17.9% (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 26.7% (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, packaged medicines, aluminum plating, cotton, cheese, copper piping (2021)

Exports - partners

Italy 10%, Germany 7%, Turkey 5%, Cyprus 5%, Bulgaria 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)

Agricultural products

maize, olives, wheat, milk, peaches/nectarines, oranges, tomatoes, grapes, milk, potatoes

Military and security forces

Hellenic Armed Forces: Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES; includes National Guard), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA; includes air defense) (2024)

note 1: the police (under the Ministry of Citizen Protection) and the armed forces (Ministry of National Defense) share law enforcement duties in certain border areas; the Greek Coast Guard is under the Ministry of Shipping Affairs and Island Policy

note 2: the National Guard was established in 1982 as an official part of the Army to help protect Greece and provide reinforcements and support to the Army in peacetime and in times of mobilization and war; members undergo weekly training run by the Army, which also provides weapons and ammunition

Budget

revenues: $98.523 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $97.277 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Athens

geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: Athens is the oldest European capital city; according to tradition, the city is named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom; in actuality, the appellation probably derives from a lost name in a pre-Hellenic language

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cars, ships (2019)

Climate

temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Coastline

13,676 km

Constitution

history: many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975

amendments: proposed by at least 50 members of Parliament and agreed by three-fifths majority vote in two separate ballots at least 30 days apart; passage requires absolute majority vote by the next elected Parliament; entry into force finalized through a "special parliamentary resolution"; articles on human rights and freedoms and the form of government cannot be amended; amended 1986, 2001, 2008, 2019

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ekaterini SAKELLAROPOULOU (since 13 March 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS (since 26 June 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2020 (next to be held by February 2025); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament

election results:
2020:
 Katerina SAKELLAROPOULOU (independent) elected president by Parliament - 261 of 300 votes; note - SAKELLAROPOULOU is Greece's first woman president

2015:
Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS (ND) elected president by Parliament - 233 of 300 votes

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors

note: Greek legislation states that the flag colors are cyan and white, but cyan can mean "blue" in Greek, so the exact shade of blue has never been set and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time; in general, the hue of blue normally encountered is a form of azure

Illicit drugs

a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis products and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime

Independence

3 February 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire); note - 25 March 1821, outbreak of the national revolt against the Ottomans; 3 February 1830, signing of the London Protocol recognizing Greek independence by Great Britain, France, and Russia

Industries

tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or Areios Pagos (consists of 56 judges, including the court presidents); Council of State (supreme administrative court) (consists of the president, 7 vice presidents, 42 privy councilors, 48 associate councilors and 50 reporting judges, organized into six 5- and 7-member chambers; Court of Audit (government audit and enforcement) consists of the president, 5 vice presidents, 20 councilors, and 90 associate and reporting judges

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by presidential decree on the advice of the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period; Council of State president appointed by the Greek Cabinet to serve a 4-year term; other judge appointments and tenure NA; Court of Audit president appointed by decree of the president of the republic on the advice of the SJC; court president serves a 4-year term or until age 67; tenure of vice presidents, councilors, and judges NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal and Courts of First Instance (district courts)

Land boundaries

total: 1,110 km

border countries (4): Albania 212 km; Bulgaria 472 km; North Macedonia 234 km; Turkey 192 km

Land use

agricultural land: 63.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 19.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 8.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 34.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 30.5% (2018 est.)

other: 6.1% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil legal system based on Roman law

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; 280 members in multi-seat and single-seat constituencies and 15 members - including 3 seats for Greek diaspora - in a single nationwide constituency directly elected by open party-list proportional representation vote; members serve up to 4 years);  note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold

elections: last held on 25 June 2023 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: percent of vote by party - ND 40.6%, SYRIZA-PS 17.8%, PASOK-KINAL 11.9%, KKE 7.7%, Spartans 4.6%, Greek Solution 4.4%, NIKI 3.7%, Course of Freedom 3.2%, other 6.1%; seats by party - ND 158, SYRIZA-PS 48, PASOK-KINAL 32, KKE 20, Spartans 12, Greek Solution 12, NIKI 10, Course of Freedom 8; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.9%

male: 98.5%

female: 97.4% (2018)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 6 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 March (1821)

Nationality

noun: Greek(s)

adjective: Greek

Natural resources

lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential

Geography - note

strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

Economic overview

tourism- and shipping-based EU economy; clientelism economic culture and systemic corruption; new structural reforms for fiscal solvency; high public debts and unemployment; increasing Chinese port control; oil and gas disputes with Turkey

Pipelines

1,466 km gas, 94 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Coalition of the Radical Left-Progressive Alliance or SYRIZA-PS [Stefanos KASSELAKIS]
Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitrios KOUTSOUMBAS]
Course of Freedom [Zoe KONSTANTOPOULOU]
Democratic Patriotic Movement-Victory or NIKI [Dimitris NATSIOS]
Greek Solution [Kyriakos VELOPOULOS]
New Democracy or ND [Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS]
PASOK - Movement for Change or PASOK-KINAL [Nikolaos (Nikos) ANDROULAKIS]
Spartans [Vassilis STIGAS]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki

oil terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi

container port(s) (TEUs): Piraeus (5,311,810) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal and compulsory

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Greece’s telecom market is susceptible to the country’s volatile economy, and, as a result, revenue among the key networks has been variable; broadband subscriptions in Greece are developing steadily; the main networks are concentrating investment on fiber-based next generation networks, enabling them to reach the European broadband targets for 2025; their work is also supported by government ultra-fast broadband projects, largely funded by the EC and aimed at delivering a service of at least 100Mb/s to under served areas; Greece’s well-developed mobile market is dominated by the three MNOs; Networks continue to invest in LTE infrastructure and technologies to provide networks capable of meeting customer demand for data services; after extensive trials of 5G, the MNOs were able to launch commercial services in early 2021 following the December 2020 allocation of frequencies in a range of bands; the rapid rollout of 5G encouraged the shut down of the 3G network (a process expected to be completed by the end of 2021) and reallocate for LTE and 5G. (2023)

domestic: 47 per 100 subscribers for fixed-line and 110 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 30; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, Adria-1, Italy-Greece 1, OTEGLOBE, MedNautilus Submarine System, Aphrodite 2, AAE-1 and Silphium optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Asia and Australia;  tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region) (2019)

Terrain

mountainous with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Hellenic Republic

conventional short form: Greece

local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia

local short form: Ellas or Ellada

former: Hellenic State, Kingdom of Greece

etymology: the English name derives from the Roman (Latin) designation "Graecia," meaning "Land of the Greeks"; the Greeks call their country "Hellas" or "Ellada"

Location

Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Map references

Europe

Irrigated land

11,853 sq km (2019)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ekaterini NASSIKA (since 27 February 2024)

chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300

FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324

email address and website:
gremb.was@mfa.gr

https://www.mfa.gr/usa/en/the-embassy/

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco

consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston

Internet country code

.gr

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 41,594 (Syria), 33,549 (Afghanistan), 14,228 (Iraq), 6,366 (West Bank and Gaza) (mid-year 2022); 27,365 (Ukraine) (as of 31 December 2023)

stateless persons: 4,488 (2022)

note: 1,288,170 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$209.79 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB (2020)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

68.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years

male: 20 years

female: 20 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 80.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

broadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about 10 of which broadcast nationwide; 1 government-owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government-owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158-stanza poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans (only the first two stanzas are used); Cyprus also uses "Hymn to Liberty" as its anthem
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Greece. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

3.154 million ATHENS (capital), 815,000 Thessaloniki (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

6.31 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.2 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

Greek cross (white cross on blue field, arms equal length); national colors: blue, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

30.7 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 12.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 33.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -34.7% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.7

youth dependency ratio: 22.2

elderly dependency ratio: 35.5

potential support ratio: 2.8 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Population distribution

one-third of the population lives in and around metropolitan Athens; the remainder of the country has moderate population density mixed with sizeable urban clusters

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 97

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,125,933 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 21.91 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

SX

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Greek 91.6%, Albanian 4.4%, other 4% (2011 est.)

note: data represent citizenship; Greece does not collect data on ethnicity

Religions

Greek Orthodox 81-90%, Muslim 2%, other 3%, none 4-15%, unspecified 1% (2015 est.)

Languages

Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%

major-language sample(s):
Το Παγκόσμιο Βιβλίο Δεδομένων, η απαραίτητη πηγή βασικών πληροφοριών. (Greek)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Greek audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 11%, China 9%, Italy 8%, Iraq 7%, Russia 6%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece has a security wall along a portion of its land border with Turkey to deter border crossings by migrants and has announced intentions to extend the wall along the entire border


Elevation

highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 498 m

note: Mount Olympus actually has 52 peaks but its highest point, Mytikas (meaning "nose"), rises to 2,917 meters; in Greek mythology, Olympus' Mytikas peak was the home of the Greek gods

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

9.5% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Hellenic Armed Forces (HAF) are responsible for protecting Greece’s independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; the HAF also maintains a presence on Cyprus (the Hellenic Force in Cyprus or ELDYK) to assist and support the Cypriot National Guard; as a member of the EU, NATO, and other international organizations, the HAF participates in multinational peacekeeping and other security missions abroad, taking a particular interest in missions occurring in the near regions, such as the Balkans, the Mediterranean and Aegean seas, the Middle East, and North Africa; areas of focus for the HAF include instability in the Balkans, territorial disputes with Turkey, and support to European security through the EU and NATO

Greece’s NATO membership is a key component of its security; it became a NATO member in 1952 and occupies a strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean on NATO’s southern flank; Greece is host to several NATO facilities, including the Deployable Corps Greece (NDC-GR) headquarters in Thessaloniki, the Combined Air Operations Center in Larissa, the Multinational Peace Support Operations Training Center in Kilkis, the Multinational Sealift Coordination Center in Athens, and the Naval Base, Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre, and NATO Missile Firing Installation at Souda, Crete 

the Hellenic Army (established 1828) consists of the Active Army, the National Guard, the High Readiness Army Reserves, and the Reserves; the active Army has an army and several corps-level command formations, including a command for the Aegean Islands, a corps in Thrace to guard the Greco-Turkish land border, and the NDC-GR; there are several divisional headquarters and about 20 combat brigades, which include air mobile, airborne, amphibious, armored, helicopter aviation, infantry, and mechanized forces; National Guard units are organized into divisional and brigade-sized commands and typically based in border regions, both on the mainland and on some of Greece’s islands

also established in 1828, the Navy’s missions include naval presence operations, the protection of Greek sovereign rights, such as the continental shelf, EEZ, and Greek-owned shipping, the security of Greece’s sea lines of communication, and power projection; it has separate commands for frigates, patrol ships, mine warfare, submarines, the Aegean Sea, surveillance, amphibious, aviation, and special operations; its principal warships include 13 frigates and 10 attack submarines, which are supplemented by fast-attack and patrol vessels of varying size and capabilities

the Air Force, established in 1911, is organized into wings, squadrons, and groups and has nearly 200 combat aircraft of French and US origin, plus early warning, maritime patrol, reconnaissance, tanker, and transport aircraft, as well as helicopters; it also has air and missile defense units (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 120,000 active-duty personnel (85,000 Army; 15,000 Navy; 20,000 Air Force); approximately 35,000 National Guard (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a mix of imported weapons from Europe and the US, as well as a limited number of domestically produced systems; in recent years, France, Germany, and the US have been the top suppliers; Greece's defense industry is capable of producing a range of military hardware, including naval vessels and associated subsystems (2023)

note: Greece is in the midst of a significant military modernization program which includes acquisitions of fighter aircraft and naval ships from France and armored vehicles and tanks from Germany; it has also boosted purchases of US equipment, including fighter aircraft upgrades, helicopters, and naval patrol craft

Military deployments

approximately 1,000 Cyprus; 100 Kosovo (NATO); 140 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Revolutionary Struggle; Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.69 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 330 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 8.11 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 5,477,424 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,040,711 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 19% (2014 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 17.1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.9% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.62 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 62.43 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 9.8 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 19 (17 cultural, 2 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Acropolis, Athens (c); Archaeological site of Delphi (c); Meteora (m); Medieval City of Rhodes (c); Archaeological site of Olympia (c); Archaeological site of Mycenae and Tiryns (c); Old Town of Corfu (c); Mount Athos (m); Delos (c); Archaeological Site of Philippi (c)

Coal

production: 13.851 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 13.828 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 7,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 305,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 2.876 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 56.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 10.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 23% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 8.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 5.748 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 5,831,987,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 33.244 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 5,219,409,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 991 million cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 4,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 309,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 4,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 491,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 10 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.68 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

54.1% (2023 est.)

Remittances

0.32% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.32% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.33% of GDP (2019 est.)

Space program overview

has a relatively new and growing space program focused on building and operating satellites; also researches and develops technologies in a variety of other space sectors, including such areas as remote sensing (RS), telecommunications, defense, environmental studies, and agricultural development; as a member of the European Space Agency (ESA), it contributes to, participates in, and benefits from ESA capabilities and programs; cooperates with space agencies and commercial space sectors of ESA and EU member states, as well as the US; has a robust commercial space sector that researches, develops, and produces a variety of space technologies and capabilities, including satellite components, electronics, sensors, and communications (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

Hellenic Space Center (HSC; aka Hellenic Space Agency; established 2018) (2023)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 8

global geoparks and regional networks: Chelmos Vouraikos; Grevena - Kozani; Kefalonia-Ithaca; Lavreotiki;  Lesvos Island; Psiloritis; Sitia; Vikos - Aoos (2023)

Labor force

4.619 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 36.9% (2021 est.)

male: 33.5%

female: 41.5%

Net migration rate

1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 46.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 44.3 years

female: 47.9 years

Debt - external

$484.888 billion (2019 est.)
$478.646 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$14.447 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$11.931 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$8.507 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Waterways

6 km (2012) (the 6-km-long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km)

Refined petroleum products - imports

192,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

252.29% of GDP (2020 est.)
212.38% of GDP (2019 est.)
208.84% of GDP (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.4 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

3.1% of GDP (2023 est.)
3.9% of GDP (2022)
3.7% of GDP (2021)
2.9% of GDP (2020)
2.5% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

14.8% (2021 est.)
16.3% (2020 est.)
17.31% (2019 est.)

Population

10,497,595 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 7.8 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 78% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

70.163 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 13.404 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 46.401 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 10.358 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 131,957 sq km

land: 130,647 sq km

water: 1,310 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

24.74% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$314.427 billion (2021 est.)
$289.97 billion (2020 est.)
$318.662 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 117,000 km (2018)

Airports

81 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 11,494,008 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

33.1 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.22% (2021 est.)
-1.25% (2020 est.)
0.25% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

371,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

-$13.858 billion (2021 est.)
-$12.413 billion (2020 est.)
-$3.112 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$29,500 (2021 est.)
$27,100 (2020 est.)
$29,700 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,257,026 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 33.5% (2020 est.)

male: 36.5% (2020 est.)

female: 30.5% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.9% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

108.022 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

12 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

7.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 21.545 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 46.18 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 967 million kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 9.831 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.256 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 1,215 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 132, container ship 4, general cargo 79, oil tanker 299, other 701

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$103.532 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$71.758 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$83.192 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$87.521 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$59.022 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$81.184 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,907,123 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

655,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.13 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.2 years

female: 84.4 years

Real GDP growth rate

8.43% (2021 est.)
-9% (2020 est.)
1.88% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

10.67% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 2,345 km (2020) 731 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 16.9% (2017 est.)

services: 79.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.04% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.35% (2023 est.)