Jordan - JO - JOR - JOR - Middle East

Last updated: February 20, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Yael LEMPERT (since 3 September 2023)

embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman

mailing address: 6050 Amman Place, Washington DC  20521-6050

telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000

FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163

email address and website:
Amman-ACS@state.gov

https://jo.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.42% (male 1,788,882/female 1,694,417)

15-64 years: 64.53% (male 3,802,074/female 3,352,680)

65 years and over: 4.05% (2023 est.) (male 218,218/female 230,445)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Jordan. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

31 00 N, 36 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Heliports

6 (2024)

Natural hazards

droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana
Area comparison map

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana


Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women); initial service term is 24 months, with option to reenlist for up to 18 years; conscription was abolished in 1991, but in 2020 Jordan announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service for jobless men aged between 25 and 29 with 12 months of service, made up of 3 months of military training and 9 months of professional and technical training; in 2019, Jordan announced a voluntary 4-month National Military Service program for men and women aged between 18-25 years who have been unemployed for at least 6 months; service would include 1 month for military training with the remaining 3 months dedicated to vocational training in the sectors of construction and tourism (2023)

note: women comprised about 3% of the military as of 2023

Background

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in 1921 and recognized ABDALLAH I from the Hashemite family as the country's first leader. The Hashemites also controlled the Hijaz, or the western coastal area of modern-day Saudi Arabia until 1925, when they were pushed out by IBN SAUD and Wahhabi tribes. The country gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The country has had four kings. Jordan's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (r. 1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and Palestinian militants, the latter of which led to a brief civil war in 1970 referred to as "Black September" and ended in King HUSSEIN's ouster of the militants from Jordan.

Jordan's borders also have changed since it gained independence. In 1948, Jordan took control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem in the first Arab-Israeli War, eventually annexing those territories in 1950 and granting its new Palestinian residents Jordanian citizenship. In 1967, Jordan lost the West Bank and East Jerusalem to Israel in the Six-Day War but retained administrative claims to the West Bank until 1988 when King HUSSEIN permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank in favor of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). King HUSSEIN signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, after Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords in 1993.

Jordanian kings continue to claim custodianship of the Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem by virtue of their Hashemite heritage as descendants of the Prophet Mohammad and agreements with Israel and Jerusalem-based religious and Palestinian leaders. After Israel captured East Jerusalem in the 1967 War, it authorized the Jordanian-controlled Islamic Trust, or Waqf, to continue administering affairs at the Al Haram ash Sharif/Temple Mount holy compound, and the Jordan-Israel peace treaty reaffirmed Jordan's "special role" in administering the Muslim holy shrines in Jerusalem. Jordanian kings claim custodianship of the Christian sites in Jerusalem on the basis of the 7th-century Pact of Omar, when the Muslim leader, after conquering Jerusalem, agreed to permit Christian worship.

King HUSSEIN died in 1999 and was succeeded by his eldest son, ABDALLAH II, who remains the current king. In 2009, King ABDALLAH II designated his son HUSSEIN as the Crown Prince. During his reign, ABDALLAH II has contended with a series of challenges, including the Arab Spring influx of refugees from neighboring states, the COVID-19 pandemic, the effects of the war in Ukraine, and a perennially weak economy.

 


Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

15.7% (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities

fertilizers, clothing and apparel, calcium phosphates, phosphoric acid, packaged medicines (2021)

Exports - partners

United States 26%, India 13%, Saudi Arabia 11%, Iraq 5%, China 4% (2021)

Administrative divisions

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Agricultural products

tomatoes, poultry, olives, milk, potatoes, cucumbers, vegetables, watermelons, green chillies/peppers, peaches/nectarines

Military and security forces

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Navy

Ministry of Interior: Public Security Directorate (includes national police, the Gendarmerie, and the Civil Defense Directorate) (2024)

note: the JAF report administratively to the minister of defense and have a support role for internal security; the prime minister serves as defense minister, but there is no separate ministry of defense

Budget

revenues: $10.813 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $13.489 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, gold, crude petroleum, clothing and apparel, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2021)

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Coastline

26 km

Constitution

history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952

amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; amended several times, last in 2022

Exchange rates

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.71 (2021 est.)
0.71 (2020 est.)
0.71 (2019 est.)
0.71 (2018 est.)
0.71 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born 28 June 1994); the monarchy is hereditary

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: prime minister appointed by the monarch

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

Independence

25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

Industries

tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Land boundaries

total: 1,744 km

border countries (5): Iraq 179 km; Israel 307 km; Saudi Arabia 731 km; Syria 379 km; West Bank 148 km

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 Sep 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next anticipated in November 2024)

election results:
2020:

Senate - composition men 58, women 7, percent of women 10.8%
2020:
Chamber of Deputies; note - tribal, centrist, and pro-government candidates dominated the  election; the Islamic Action Front, the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, garnered only 10 seats, down from 15 in the previous election; women, who are guaranteed 15 seats by Jordan’s legislative quota system, won 16 seats, down from 20 seats won in the previous election; composition - men 114, women 16, percent of women 12.3%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 11.8%

 



note: in 2022, a new electoral law - effective for the anticipated 2024 election - will increase the total number of Chamber of Deputies' seats to 138 from 130; 97 members to be directly elected from multi-seat geographic districts by open list proportional representation vote, with over 7 percent of total votes needed to gain a seat, and 41 members to be directly elected from a single national district by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with over a 2.5 percent of total votes needed to gain a seat

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.4%

male: 98.7%

female: 98.4% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, NATO (partner), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Nationality

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Natural resources

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Geography - note

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)

Economic overview

low growth, upper middle-income Middle Eastern economy; high debt and unemployment, especially for youth and women; key US foreign assistance recipient; natural resource-poor and import-reliant

Pipelines

473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

political reforms enacted in 2020 require all existing parties to re-register by May 2023, which will result in changes to the number of registered parties and the number of seats held by those parties for the anticipated 2024 election

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Jordan’s government has focused on the use of ICT in a range of sectors, aimed at transforming the relatively small economy through the use of digital services; this policy has helped the country rise in the league tables for digital connectivity and internet readiness, and it has also attracted investment from foreign companies; during the ongoing global pandemic, the start-up sector has been further encouraged to develop solutions to combat the crisis, while other efforts have facilitated e-government services and encouraged businesses to adapt to new methods of working through their own digital transformation; these developments have been supported by the highly developed mobile sector, led by three major regional players which have near-comprehensive LTE network coverage (2022)

domestic: fixed-line stands at nearly 4 per 100 persons and mobile cellular subscriptions at 65 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)

Terrain

mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Country name

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Location

Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Map references

Middle East

Irrigated land

833 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawfiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

email address and website:
hkjconsular@jordanembassyus.org

http://www.jordanembassyus.org/

Internet country code

.jo

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2.4 million (Palestinian refugees) (2020); 12,866 (Yemen), 6,013 Sudan (2021); 33,951 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022) (2022); 643,199 (Syria) (2024)

stateless persons: 64 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$44.568 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)

Moody's rating: B1 (2013)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

940 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 10 years

female: 11 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 92% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.2% of population

rural: 97.9% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population

rural: 2.1% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)

lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Jordan. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

2.232 million AMMAN (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

2.66 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.6 years (2017/18 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Contraceptive prevalence rate

51.8% (2017/18)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.1

youth dependency ratio: 51.2

elderly dependency ratio: 5.8

potential support ratio: 17.1 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Electricity access

population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million

electrification - total population: 99.9% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 98.8% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

JY

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.8% of population

rural: 97.8% of population

total: 98.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population

rural: 2.2% of population

total: 1.3% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (2015 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identified nationality in national census

Religions

Muslim 97.1% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.1% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, folk <0.1%, other <0.1%, unaffiliated <0.1% (2020 est.)

Languages

Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Arabic audio sample

Imports - partners

China 17%, Saudi Arabia 14%, United Arab Emirates 11%, United States 5%, Turkey 3% (2021)

Disputes - international

Jordan-Iraq: the two countries signed a border agreement in 1984; Jordan has ratified the treaty, but it has not been confirmed that Iraq has ratified it; as of 2010, the agreement had not been registered with the UN

Jordan-Israel: none identified

Jordan-Saudi Arabia: Jordan and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to demarcate their maritime borders in 2007

Jordan-Syria: the two countries signed an agreement in 2005 to settle the border dispute based on a 1931 demarcation accord; the two countries began demarcation in 2006

Jordan-West Bank: none identified


Elevation

highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

mean elevation: 812 m

Current health expenditure

7.5% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the JAF traces its origins back to the Arab Legion, which was formed under the British protectorate of Transjordan in the 1920s; it is responsible for territorial defense and border security, but also has a supporting role for internal security; the JAF’s primary concerns are terrorist and criminal threats emanating from its 230-mile border with Syria and 112-mile border with Iraq, as well as the potential impact of Israeli-Palestinian tensions; the terrorist group Hizballah and Iranian-backed militia forces operate in southwestern Syria near Jordan’s border while fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) terrorist group continue to operate in both Iraq and Syria; ISIS fighters have included Jordanian nationals, some of whom have returned to Jordan; meanwhile, individuals and groups sympathetic to Palestine have planned and conducted terrorist attacks in Jordan

the JAF participates in both bilateral and multinational exercises and has taken part in regional military operations alongside allied forces in Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen; in recent years, it has contributed to regional military operations alongside allied forces in Afghanistan, Syria, and Yemen; it also participates in UN peacekeeping missions; the Army is organized and equipped for a mobile territorial defense against conventional threats and rapid responses to unconventional threats such as terrorism; border security forces are backed up by approximately 10 mechanized or armored brigades, plus a rapid reaction/high readiness airborne/ranger brigade; the Army also has a well-regarded special operations/counterterrorism group, and Jordan hosts an international special operations training center; the Air Force maintains about 50 US-made multirole fighter aircraft and dozens of attack helicopters; the Navy is a coastal defense force with some fast, gun- or missile-armed patrol craft for monitoring Jordan’s coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba

the US is a key security partner, and Jordan is one of the largest recipients of US military aid in the region; it cooperates with the US on a number of issues, including border and maritime security, arms transfers, cybersecurity, and counterterrorism; Jordan has Major Non-NATO Ally status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 100,000 active-duty armed forces personnel (85,000 Army; 14,000 Air Force; 1,000 Navy); approximately 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported equipment from Europe, some Gulf States, Russia, and the US; in recent years, the Netherlands and the US have been the leading suppliers (2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 40 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 570 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,529,997 tons (2013 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 177,100 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2014 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 29.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 25.87 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 25.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Dead Sea (shared with Israel and West Bank) - 1,020 sq km
note - endorheic hypersaline lake; 9.6 times saltier than the ocean; lake shore is 431 meters below sea level

Illicit drugs

primarily a transshipment country for amphetamine tablets originating in Lebanon and Syria and destined for Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Gulf countries; the government is increasingly concerned about domestic consumption of illicit drugs

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 6 (5 cultural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Petra (c); Quseir Amra (c); Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) (c); Wadi Rum Protected Area (m); Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) (c); As-Salt - The Place of Tolerance and Urban Hospitality (c)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 1.5%

women married by age 18: 9.7%

men married by age 18: 0.1% (2018 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 83.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 11.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 4.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 115.872 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 4.651 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 375.849 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 4.911 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 6.031 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 114,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 47,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.41 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

55.6% (2023 est.)

Remittances

11.29% of GDP (2021 est.)
11.05% of GDP (2020 est.)
10.34% of GDP (2019 est.)

Labor force

2.865 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 40.5% (2021 est.)

male: 37.4%

female: 53.8%

Net migration rate

-11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 24.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 25.1 years

female: 24.1 years

Debt - external

$32.088 billion (2019 est.)
$29.916 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

41 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

68,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

75.14% of GDP (2020 est.)
78.48% of GDP (2019 est.)
75.38% of GDP (2017 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Total fertility rate

2.91 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

4.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
5% of GDP (2021 est.)
5% of GDP (2020 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

19.25% (2021 est.)
19.03% (2020 est.)
16.81% (2019 est.)

note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

Population

11,086,716 (2023 est.)

note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 9.13 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 83% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

23.47 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 381,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 15.786 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 7.303 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 89,342 sq km

land: 88,802 sq km

water: 540 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

15.81% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$102.822 billion (2021 est.)
$100.581 billion (2020 est.)
$102.185 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 7,203 km (2011)

paved: 7,203 km (2011)

Infant mortality rate

total: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,275,563 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 65 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

33.7 (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.35% (2021 est.)
0.33% (2020 est.)
0.76% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$4.03 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.506 billion (2020 est.)
-$773.366 million (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$9,200 (2021 est.)
$9,200 (2020 est.)
$9,600 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 630,545 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 34.8% (2020 est.)

male: 56.8% (2020 est.)

female: 12.8% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

35.5% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

39.331 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

22.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 5.644 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 17.366 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 98 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 239 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.249 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 34 (2023)

by type: general cargo 5, other 29

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.7% (2019)

Imports

$23.392 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$18.424 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$21.964 billion (2019 est.)

Exports

$13.864 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$10.444 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$16.17 billion (2019 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 465,603 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

67,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 74.8 years

female: 77.8 years

Real GDP growth rate

2.23% (2021 est.)
-1.57% (2020 est.)
1.93% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

3.02% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 509 km (2020)

narrow gauge: 509 km (2014) 1.050-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)

services: 66.6% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.2% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.79% (2023 est.)

Airports

17 (2024)