Luxembourg - LU - LUX - LUX - Europe

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Luxembourg Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M. BARRETT (since 10 February 2022)

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: 5380 Luxembourg Place, Washington DC  20521-5380

telephone: [352] 46-01-23-00

FAX: [352] 46-14-01

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.73% (male 57,006/female 53,593)

15-64 years: 67.38% (male 228,427/female 216,912)

65 years and over: 15.88% (2023 est.) (male 47,951/female 57,035)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Luxembourg. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 6 10 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


11 (2024)

Natural hazards

occasional flooding

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (abolished 1969) (2024)

note 1: since 2003, the Army has allowed EU citizens 18-24 years of age who have been a resident in the country for at least 36 months to volunteer

note 2:
2023, women made up about 12% of the military's full-time personnel


Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and a constituent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands following the Congress of Vienna. When Belgium declared independence from the Netherlands in 1839, Luxembourg lost more than half of its territory to Belgium but gained a larger measure of autonomy within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.  Luxembourg gained full independence in 1867 under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Population below poverty line

17.4% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

iron products, cars and vehicle parts, tires, gas turbines, adhesive plastics (2021)

Exports - partners

Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, beef, grapes, rapeseed, oats

Military and security forces

Luxembourg Army (l'Armée Luxembourgeoise) (2024)

note: the Grand Ducal Police maintain internal security and report to the Ministry of Internal Security


revenues: $31.74 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $30.014 billion (2019 est.)


name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic lucilem (little) and the German burg (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


0 km (landlocked)


history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868

amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than a quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2020

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Luc FRIEDEN (since 17 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 17 November 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)


1839 (from the Netherlands)


banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts

Land boundaries

total: 327 km

border countries (3): Belgium 130 km; France 69 km; Germany 128 km

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 24% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)

other: 15.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies

last held on 8 October 2023 (next to be held by 31 October 2028)

election results:
percent of vote by party - CSV 29.2%, LSAP 18.9%, DP 18.7%, ADR 9.3%, Green Party 8.6%, Pirate Party 6.7%, The Left 3.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 14, LSAP 11, ADR 5, Green Party 4, Pirate Party 3, The Left 2; composition as of February 2024 - men 40, women 20, percentage women 33.3%

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

National Day (birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year


noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Geography - note

landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world

Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; global financial and information storage leader; high government spending; one of highest GDP per capita countries; unique audit accountancy based on company sizing; aging labor force; hit by COVID-19


142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fred KEUP]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Claude WISELER]
Democratic Party or DP [Lex DELLES]
Green Party [Djuna BERNARD, Meris SEHOVIC]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Dan BIANCALANA, Francine CLOSENER]
Pirate Party [Starsky FLOR, Rebecca LAU]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Luxembourg has a small telecom sector; there remains some pressure from regulatory measures, though no further reductions to fixed and mobile interconnection tariffs have been imposed through to 2024; high mobile penetration has slowed subscriber growth in the mobile market since 2005, though a recent law requiring SIM card registration has not had an adverse effect on the number of mobile subscribers despite network operators deactivating unregistered cards (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 42 per 100 persons; 140 per 100 mobile-cellular subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 352


mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Country name

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself


Western Europe, between France and Germany

Map references


Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Nicole BINTNER-BAKSHIAN (since 15 August 2021)

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,065 (Ukraine) (as of 11 August 2023)

stateless persons: 174 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$81.642 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1994)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1989)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1994)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

3.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2020)


urban population: 92.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.6% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.4% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Luxembourg. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2019)

National symbol(s)

red, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

Mother's mean age at first birth

31 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.2

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 21.3

potential support ratio: 4.7 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 66

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,099,102 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,323,040,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)


Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 48.9%, Portuguese 15.4%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 14.9%, Italian 3.6%, English 3.6%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 2.9%, other 10.8% (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

mean elevation: 325 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

5.8% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

founded in 1881, the Luxembourg Army is responsible for the defense of the country and fulfilling the Grand Duchy’s commitments to NATO, European security, and international peacekeeping, as well as providing support to civil authorities in the event of emergencies, such as floods or disease outbreaks; the Army is an active participant in EU, NATO, and UN missions and has contributed small numbers of troops to multinational operations in such places as Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chad, Croatia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, North Macedonia, Mali, Mozambique, and Uganda; it trains and exercises regularly with EU and NATO partners and has contributed to the NATO battlegroup forward deployed in Lithuania since 2017; Luxembourg was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) establishing NATO in 1949

the combat forces of the Luxembourg Army are two companies of infantry and reconnaissance troops; the Army has no combat aircraft; in 2015, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg signed an agreement to conduct joint air policing of their territories; under the agreement, which went into effect in January 2017, the Belgian and Dutch Air Forces trade responsibility for patrolling the skies over the three countries (2024)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 900 active-duty personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of Luxembourg's Army is a small mix of Western origin equipment (2024)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 400,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 356,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 100,997 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.4% (2015 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 8.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 8.99 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.61 megatons (2020 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 sq km)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Luxembourg City Old Quarters and Fortifications


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 65,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 74,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 14.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 27.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 36.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 776.022 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 772.624 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 63,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.79 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

51.4% (2023 est.)


2.68% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.84% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.15% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Space program overview

aims to be the commercial space hub for Europe; LSA established largely to develop space policy, encourage and coordinate commercial space ventures, support space education, and to promote the country’s space-related capabilities internationally; has set up policy and funding initiatives aimed at encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship and attracting space-based industries; focused on developing commercial satellites and infrastructure (Luxembourg is home to some of the largest commercial satellite companies in the world), as well as other space sector capabilities and technologies, such as autonomous vehicles, robotics, remote sensing (RS), communications, and software; member of the European Space Agency (ESA), participates in ESA programs, and cooperates with individual ESA and EU member states; also has relations with other foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Canada, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, the UAE, and the US (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

the Luxembourg Space Agency (LSA; established 2018) (2023)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Mëllerdall (2023)

Labor force

339,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 15.2% (2021 est.)

male: 16.3%

female: 14.1%

Net migration rate

11.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 39.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 39.3 years

female: 40.3 years

Debt - external

$4,266,792,000,000 (2019 est.)
$4,581,617,000,000 (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.874 billion (2022 est.)
$2.921 billion (2021 est.)
$1.119 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


37 km (2010) (on Moselle River)

Refined petroleum products - imports

59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

23% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2022)
0.5% of GDP (2021)
0.6% of GDP (2020)
0.6% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

4.58% (2022 est.)
5.25% (2021 est.)
6.77% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


660,924 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 633,600 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 99% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

11.308 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 149,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.564 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.594 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

26.11% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$76.901 billion (2022 est.)
$75.854 billion (2021 est.)
$70.78 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 2,746 km (2022)


3 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 880,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

33.4 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6.34% (2022 est.)
2.53% (2021 est.)
0.82% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

$6.168 billion (2022 est.)
$6.819 billion (2021 est.)
$6.357 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$117,700 (2022 est.)
$118,500 (2021 est.)
$112,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 235,155 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 21.1% (2020 est.)

male: 22.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.8% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.6% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

310.068 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

11.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 1.899 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 6.188 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 1.079 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 6.543 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 156 million kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 147 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 1, general cargo 24, oil tanker 4, other 115

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$141.761 billion (2022 est.)
$152.01 billion (2021 est.)
$121.517 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$172.145 billion (2022 est.)
$184.932 billion (2021 est.)
$150.519 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 261,054 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 4.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 80.7 years

female: 85.8 years

Real GDP growth rate

1.38% (2022 est.)
7.17% (2021 est.)
-0.91% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

-7.47% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 271 km (2020) 262 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)

services: 86.9% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.58% (2023 est.)