Nepal - NP - NPL - NEP - South Asia

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dean R. THOMPSON (since October 2022)

embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu

mailing address: 6190 Kathmandu Place, Washington DC  20521-6190

telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000

FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.32% (male 4,175,742/female 3,956,153)

15-64 years: 67.52% (male 10,016,748/female 10,846,101)

65 years and over: 6.16% (2023 est.) (male 930,510/female 974,189)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Nepal. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

28 00 N, 84 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

Area - comparative

slightly larger than New York state
Area comparison map

slightly larger than New York state

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service (including women); no conscription (2023)

note: as of 2022, women comprised about 7% of the active duty military


During the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepali Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. During the ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces, the monarchy dissolved the cabinet and parliament and re-assumed absolute power in 2002, after the crown prince massacred the royal family in 2001. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in 2013, in which the Nepali Congress (NC) won the largest share of seats in the CA and in 2014 formed a coalition government with the second-place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) with NC President Sushil KOIRALA serving as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in 2015, at which point the CA became the Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from 2015 to 2016. OLI resigned ahead of a no-confidence motion against him, and Parliament elected Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (CPN-M) leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka "Prachanda") prime minister. The constitution provided for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – needed to take place. The first local elections in 20 years occurred in three phases between May and September 2017, and state and federal elections proceeded in two phases in November and December 2017. The parties headed by OLI and DAHAL ran in coalition and swept the parliamentary elections, and OLI, who led the larger of the two parties, was sworn in as prime minister in February 2018. In May 2018, OLI and DAHAL announced the merger of their parties - the UML and CPN-M - to establish the Nepal Communist Party (NCP), which headed the government for roughly two years before infighting led the party to split. OLI from late 2020 sought to dissolve parliament and hold elections. The supreme court in July 2021 declared OLI's efforts unconstitutional and called for an appointment of the opposition-supported NC leader Sher Bahadur DEUBA as prime minister. DEUBA led Nepal with the support of his party and DAHAL's Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre (CPN-MC) until December 2022. The NC won a majority of seats in the parliamentary elections on November 2022, but in late December 2022, DAHAL broke with the ruling coalition and sought a partnership with OLI and the CPN-UML to become prime minister. DAHAL's first post-election cabinet lasted approximately two months, until disagreements over ministerial assignments across the coalition caused OLI to withdraw his support. In March 2023, DAHAL survived a vote of confidence and formed a coalition with the NC to remain prime minister.


Environment - current issues

deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); forest degradation; soil erosion; contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); unmanaged solid-waste; wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Marine Life Conservation

Population below poverty line

25.2% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.2%

highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)

Exports - commodities

soybean oil, palm oil, clothing and apparel, carpets, nutmeg (2021)

Exports - partners

India 68%, United States 10% (2019)

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (pradesh, singular - pradesh); Bagmati, Gandaki, Karnali, Koshi, Lumbini, Madhesh, Sudurpashchim

Agricultural products

rice, vegetables, sugar cane, potatoes, maize, wheat, buffalo milk, milk, fruit, mangoes/guavas

Military and security forces

Nepalese Armed Forces (Ministry of Defense): Nepali Army (includes Air Wing)

Ministry of Home Affairs: Nepal Police, Nepal Armed Police Force (2024)

note: the Nepal Police are responsible for enforcing law and order across the country; the Armed Police Force is responsible for combating terrorism, providing security during riots and public disturbances, assisting in natural disasters, and protecting vital infrastructure, public officials, and the borders; it also conducts counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations and would assist the Army in the event of an external invasion


revenues: $7.305 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $9.008 billion (2020 est.)


name: Kathmandu

geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E

time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Kasthamandap temple that stood in Durbar Square; in Sanskrit, kastha means "wood" and mandapa means "pavilion"; the three-story structure was made entirely of wood, without iron nails or supports, and dated to the late 16th century; it collapsed during a 2015 earthquake

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron, broadcasting equipment, natural gas, rice (2019)


varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south


0 km (landlocked)


history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015

amendments: proposed as a bill by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended 2016, 2020

Exchange rates

Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
125.199 (2022 est.)
118.134 (2021 est.)
118.345 (2020 est.)
112.609 (2019 est.)
108.93 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ram Chandra POUDEL (since 13 March 2023); Vice President Ram Sahaya Prasad YADAV (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 26 December 2022); Deputy Prime Ministers Narayan Kaji SHRESTHA (since 26 December 2022), Rabi LAMICHHANE (since 26 December 2022), Raghubir MAHASETH (since 6 March 2024), Upendra YADAV (since 10 March 2024) (an)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet split between Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre, and various coalition partners

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 March 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results: 2023: Ram Chandra POUDEL elected president; electoral college vote - Ram Chandra POUDEL (NC) 33,802, Subash Chandra NEMBANG (CPN-UML) 15,518

Fiscal year

16 July - 15 July

Flag description

crimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies

note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West; destination country for Indian-produced heroin smuggled in for domestic consumption


1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)


tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member, high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice serves a 6-year term; judges serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Court; district courts

Land boundaries

total: 3,159 km

border countries (2): China 1,389 km; India 1,770 km

Land use

agricultural land: 28.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 12.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 25.4% (2018 est.)

other: 45.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

English common law and Hindu legal concepts; note - new criminal and civil codes came into effect on 17 August 2018


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.2%

male: 81%

female: 63.3% (2021)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation


National holiday

Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015 and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar


noun: Nepali (singular and plural)

adjective: Nepali

Natural resources

quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively

Economic overview

low-income South Asian economy; post-conflict fiscal federalism increasing stability; COVID-19 hurt trade and tourism; widening current account deficits; environmentally fragile economy from earthquakes; growing Chinese relations and investments

Political parties and leaders

Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL]
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad OLI]
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Socialist) or CPN-US [Madhav Kumar NEPAL]
Janamat Party [Chandra Kant RAUT]
Janata Samajbaadi Party or JSP [Upendra YADAV]
Loktantrik Samajwadi Party or LSP [Mahantha THAKUR]
Naya Shakti Party, Nepal [Baburam BHATTARAI]
Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party (Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Party) or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Rastriya Janamorcha (National People's Front) [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party (National Democratic Party) or RPP [Rajendra Prasad LINGDEN]
Rastriya Swatantra Party or RSP [Rabi LAMICHHANE]


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: in relation to its telecom sector, Nepal has several topographical and economic constraints which have impeded efforts to expand network infrastructure and improve the quality of service for end-users; the fixed line market remains underdeveloped, and as a result most traffic is channeled via mobile networks; fixed broadband penetration remains very low, though to address this the government has initiated several programs as part of the Digital Nepal Framework and the wider Optical Fiber Backbone Network Expansion Project, started in 2012; supported by the Rural Telecommunications Development Fund, the programs include building out fiber backbone infrastructure and using this to provide broadband to schools and community centers nationally; telcos have also invested in fiber networks, and competition in the market is intensifying; cheap fiber-based services launched in mid-2021 prompted responses from other ISPs to provide faster and more competitively priced offers; Nepal’s mobile market is relatively developed, with a focus on LTE; in 2021, the regulator considered a range of spectrum bands which could be used for 5G (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 2 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular nearly 130 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 977; Nepal, China and Tibet connected across borders with underground and all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber-optic cables; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)


Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north

Government type

federal parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Nepal

local long form: none

local short form: Nepal

etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word


Southern Asia, between China and India

Map references


Irrigated land

13,320 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sridhar KHATRI (since 19 April 2022)

chancery: 2730 34th Place NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 12,540 (Tibet/China), 6,365 (Bhutan) (mid-year 2022)

stateless persons: undetermined (mid-year 2021)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$40.828 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Total renewable water resources

210.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2020)


urban population: 21.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 117 television channels are licensed, among those 71 are cable television channels, three are distributed through Direct-To-Home (DTH) system, and four are digital terrestrial; 736 FM radio stations are licensed and at least 314 of those radio stations are community radio stations (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 92.7% of population

rural: 94.4% of population

total: 94.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.3% of population

rural: 5.6% of population

total: 5.9% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)

lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG

note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Nepal. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.571 million KATHMANDU (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

0.85 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)

National symbol(s)

rhododendron blossom; national color: red

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.4 years (2016 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Contraceptive prevalence rate

46.7% (2019)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 33.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 8.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 9.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 54.9

youth dependency ratio: 45.5

elderly dependency ratio: 9.4

potential support ratio: 10.7 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Population distribution

most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low

Electricity access

population without electricity: 1 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 89.9% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 94.2% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 97% (2020)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 39

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,296,953 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4.66 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 95.1% of population

rural: 85.7% of population

total: 87.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.9% of population

rural: 14.3% of population

total: 12.3% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chhettri 16.5%, Brahman-Hill 11.3%, Magar 6.9%, Tharu 6.2%, Tamang 5.6%, Bishwokarma 5%, Musalman 4.9%, Newar 4.6%, Yadav 4.2%, Rai 2.2%, Pariyar 1.9%, Gurung 1.9%, Thakuri 1.7%, Mijar 1.6%, Teli 1.5%, Yakthung/Limbu 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.4%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 20% (2021 est.)

note: 141 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2021 national census


Hindu 81.2%, Buddhist 8.2%, Muslim 5.1%, Kirat 3.2%, Christian 1.8%, other 0.5% (2021 est.)


Nepali (official) 44.9%, Maithali 11.1%, Bhojpuri 6.2%, Tharu 5.9%, Tamang 4.9%, Bajjika 3.9%, Avadhi 3%, Nepalbhasha (Newari) 3%, Magar Dhut 2.8%, Doteli 1.7%, Urdu 1.4%, Yakthung/Limbu 1.2%, Gurung 1.1%, other 8.9%; note - 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2021 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
विश्व तथ्य पुस्तक,आधारभूत जानकारीको लागि अपरिहार्य स्रोत (Nepali)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Nepali audio sample

Imports - partners

India 70%, China 15% (2019)

Disputes - international

Nepal-China: China may have constructed 11 buildings in Nepal’s Humla region in 2021

Nepal-India: joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; the Kalapani issue resurfaced in November 2019 when India issued a new map showing the contested area within India’s borders and then built a new road in the region through Lipulekh pass, an area controlled by India but claimed by Nepal; Nepal countered by amending its constitution and issuing its own map showing the disputed area within its borders; the countries prime ministers briefly discussed the border dispute in April 2022; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities


highest point: Mount Everest (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level) 8,849 m

lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m

mean elevation: 2,565 m

Current health expenditure

5.2% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Nepali Army is a lightly equipped force responsible for territorial defense, although it has some domestic duties such as disaster relief/humanitarian assistance and nature conservation efforts; during the 10-year civil war that ended in 2006, it conducted extensive counterinsurgency operations against Maoist guerrillas; the Army also has a long and distinguished history of supporting UN missions, having sent its first UN observers to Lebanon in 1958 and its first troop contingent to Egypt in 1974; as of 2023, nearly 150,000 Nepali military personnel had deployed on over 40 UN missions; the Army conducts training with foreign partners, including China, India, and the US; it has eight geographically-based divisions, each comprised of light infantry brigades and support units; the Army also has independent special forces and security force (palace guard) brigades; the Air Wing has a small number of multi-role and transport helicopters

the British began to recruit Nepalese citizens (Gurkhas) into the East India Company Army during the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816); the Gurkhas subsequently were brought into the British Indian Army and by 1914, there were 10 Gurkha regiments, collectively known as the Gurkha Brigade; following the partition of India in 1947, an agreement between Nepal, India, and Great Britain allowed for the transfer of the 10 regiments from the British Indian Army to the separate British and Indian armies; four regiments were transferred to the British Army, where they have since served continuously as the Brigade of Gurkhas; six Gurkha (aka Gorkha in India) regiments went to the new Indian Army; a seventh regiment was later added; Gurkhas are also recruited into the Singaporean Police and a special guard in the Sultanate of Brunei known as the Gurkha Reserve Unit (2024)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 95,000 active troops (including a small air wing of about 500 personnel) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Army's inventory includes a mix of mostly older equipment largely of British, Chinese, Indian, Russian, and South African origin; in recent years, Nepal has received limited amounts of newer hardware from several countries, including China, Italy, and Russia (2022)

Military deployments

1240 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,150 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 400 Golan Heights (UNDOF); 875 Lebanon (UNIFIL); 225 Liberia (UNSMIL); 100 South Sudan/Sudan (UNISFA); 1,725 (plus about 220 police) South Sudan (UNMISS); note - Nepal has over 6,000 total personnel deployed on 15 UN missions (2024)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Indian Mujahedeen

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 150 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 9.32 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,768,977 tons (2016 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 36.43 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 9.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 41.15 megatons (2020 est.)

Major aquifers

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: Brahmaputra (651,335 sq km), Ganges (1,016,124 sq km), Indus (1,081,718 sq km)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (2 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Kathmandu Valley (c); Sagarmatha National Park (n); Chitwan National Park (n); Lumbini, Buddha Birthplace (c)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 7.9%

women married by age 18: 32.8%

men married by age 18: 9% (2019 est.)


14 (2024)


production: 28,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 839,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 811,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 1 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 97.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 49,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.91 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

74.6% (2023 est.)


22.76% of GDP (2022 est.)
22.28% of GDP (2021 est.)
24.25% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

8.741 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 9.5% (2021 est.)

male: 10.6%

female: 8.6%

Net migration rate

-4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 27.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 26 years

female: 28.1 years

Debt - external

$5.849 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.321 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

174 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$9.319 billion (2022 est.)
$9.639 billion (2021 est.)
$11.468 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

26,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

39.92% of GDP (2021 est.)
39.05% of GDP (2020 est.)
31.78% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

Total fertility rate

1.88 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2019)
2.3% of GDP (2018)

Unemployment rate

10.92% (2022 est.)
12.58% (2021 est.)
13.12% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


30,899,443 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 15.6 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 52% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

7.708 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.051 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 6.657 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 147,181 sq km

land: 143,351 sq km

water: 3,830 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

17.49% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$122.242 billion (2022 est.)
$115.745 billion (2021 est.)
$110.404 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 64,500 km (2020)


51 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 24.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 25.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 38 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

32.8 (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.65% (2022 est.)
4.15% (2021 est.)
5.05% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.518 billion (2022 est.)
-$5.363 billion (2021 est.)
-$84.137 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$4,000 (2022 est.)
$3,900 (2021 est.)
$3,800 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1.27 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 30.4% (2020 est.)

male: 47.9% (2020 est.)

female: 12.8% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

4.1% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

5.219 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

17.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 1.392 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.676 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 107 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 1.729 billion kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.183 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

18.7% (2022)


$15.462 billion (2022 est.)
$16.993 billion (2021 est.)
$10.694 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$2.733 billion (2022 est.)
$2.52 billion (2021 est.)
$1.771 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 726,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.22 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.13 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 72 years

female: 73.4 years

Real GDP growth rate

5.61% (2022 est.)
4.84% (2021 est.)
-2.37% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

10.8% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 59 km (2018)

narrow gauge: 59 km (2018) 0.762-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 27% (2017 est.)

industry: 13.5% (2017 est.)

services: 59.5% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.45% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.74% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years)
House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a threshold of 3% overall valid vote to be allocated a seat; members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Representatives was dissolved on 22 May 2021, but on 13 July, the Supreme Court directed its reinstatement

National Assembly - last held on 26 January 2022 (next to be held in 2024)

House of Representatives - last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2027)

election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-UML 42, NC 13, FSFN 2, RJPN 2; composition - men 37, women 22, percentage women 37.3%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NC 89, CPN-UML 78, CPN-MC 32, RSP 20, RPP 14, PSP-N 12, CPN (Unified Socialist) 10, Janamat Party 6, Loktantrik Samajwadi Party 4,
other 10; composition - men 18, women 90, percentage women 33.1%; total Federal Parliament percentage women NA%