New Zealand - NZ - NZL - NZL - Australia and Oceania

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Stewart UDALL (since 1 December 2021) note - also accredited to Samoa

embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington 6011

mailing address: 4370 Auckland Place, Washington DC  20521-4370

telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000

FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Auckland

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.15% (male 503,190/female 475,527)

15-64 years: 64.36% (male 1,661,312/female 1,627,304)

65 years and over: 16.49% (2023 est.) (male 394,339/female 448,030)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for New Zealand. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

41 00 S, 174 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

volcanism: significant volcanism on North Island; Ruapehu (2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century; Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars; other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Area - comparative

almost twice the size of North Carolina; about the size of Colorado
Area comparison map

almost twice the size of North Carolina; about the size of Colorado

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2023)

note 1: New Zealand opened up all military occupations to women in 2000; in 2022, women accounted for about 20% of armed forces personnel

note 2: as of 2022, the NZDF’s program for recruiting foreign volunteers had been suspended


Polynesian settlers may have arrived in New Zealand in the late 1200s, with widespread settlement in the mid-1300s. They called the land Aotearoa, which legend holds is the name of the canoe that Kupe, the first Polynesian in New Zealand, used to sail to the country; the name Aotearoa is now in widespread use as the local Maori name for the country. Competition for land and resources led to intermittent fighting between different Maori iwi (tribes) by the 1500s as large game became extinct. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to see the islands in 1642 but after an encounter with local Maori, he sailed away. British captain James COOK was the next European to arrive in New Zealand in 1769, followed by whalers, sealers, and traders. The UK only nominally claimed New Zealand and included it as part of New South Wales in Australia. Concerns about increasing lawlessness led the UK to appoint its first British Resident in New Zealand in 1832, although he had few legal powers. In 1835, some Maori iwi from the North Island declared independence as the United Tribes of New Zealand. Fearing an impending French settlement and takeover, they asked the British for protection. In 1840, the British negotiated their protection in the Treaty of Waitangi, which was eventually signed by more than 500 different Maori chiefs, although many chiefs did not or were not asked to sign. In the English-language version of the treaty, the British thought the Maori ceded their land to the UK, but translations of the treaty appeared to give the British less authority, and land tenure issues stemming from the treaty are still present and being actively negotiated in New Zealand.

The UK declared New Zealand a separate colony in 1841 and gave it limited self-government in 1852. Different traditions of authority and land use led to a series of wars from the 1840s to the 1870s fought between Europeans and various Maori iwi. Along with disease, these conflicts halved the Maori population. In the 1890s, New Zealand initially expressed interest in joining independence talks with Australia but ultimately opted against it and changed its status to an independent dominion in 1907. New Zealand provided more than 100,000 troops during each World War, many of whom fought as part of the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). New Zealand reaffirmed its independence in 1947, signed the Australia, New Zealand, and US (ANZUS) Treaty, and militarily supported the US in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Beginning in 1984, New Zealand began to adopt nuclear-free policies, contributing to a dispute with the US over naval ship visits that led the US to suspend its defense obligations to New Zealand in 1986.

In recent years, New Zealand has explored reducing some of its ties to the UK. There in an active, minority movement about changing New Zealand to a republic, and in 2015-16, a referendum on changing the New Zealand flag to remove the Union Jack failed 57% to 43%.

Environment - current issues

water quality and availability; rapid urbanization; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

milk cream powders, lumber, beef, butter, mutton (2021)

Exports - partners

China 33%, Australia 12%, United States 11%, Japan 6%, South Korea 3% (2021)

Administrative divisions

16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast

Agricultural products

milk, beef, kiwi fruit, apples, potatoes, mutton, grapes, wheat, barley, green onions/shallots

Military and security forces

New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2024)

note: the New Zealand Police, under the Minister of Police, are responsible for internal security


revenues: $76.694 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $88.593 billion (2020 est.)


name: Wellington

geographic coordinates: 41 18 S, 174 47 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April

time zone note: New Zealand has two time zones: New Zealand standard time (UTC+12) and Chatham Islands time (45 minutes in advance of New Zealand standard time; UTC+12:45)

etymology: named in 1840 after Arthur WELLESLEY, the first Duke of Wellington and victorious general at the Battle of Waterloo

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, delivery trucks, broadcasting equipment, gas turbines (2021)


temperate with sharp regional contrasts


15,134 km


history: New Zealand has no single constitution document; the Constitution Act 1986, effective 1 January 1987, includes only part of the uncodified constitution; others include a collection of statutes or "acts of Parliament," the Treaty of Waitangi, Orders in Council, letters patent, court decisions, and unwritten conventions

amendments: proposed as bill by Parliament or by referendum called either by the government or by citizens; passage of a bill as an act normally requires two separate readings with committee reviews in between to make changes and corrections, a third reading approved by the House of Representatives membership or by the majority of votes in a referendum, and assent of the governor-general; passage of amendments to reserved constitutional provisions affecting the term of Parliament, electoral districts, and voting restrictions requires approval by 75% of the House membership or the majority of votes in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2020

Dependent areas

Tokelau (1)

Exchange rates

New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.577 (2022 est.)
1.414 (2021 est.)
1.542 (2020 est.)
1.518 (2019 est.)
1.445 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Christopher LUXON (since 27 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 27 November 2023)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor-general

note: according to Prime Minister LUXON, the Winston PETERS of the New Zealand First Party would be the deputy prime minister in the first half of the term while Act party leader, David SEYMOUR, would take the role for the second half of the term

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes

Flag description

blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

Illicit drugs

significant consumer of amphetamines


26 September 1907 (from the UK)


agriculture, forestry, fishing, logs and wood articles, manufacturing, mining, construction, financial services, real estate services, tourism

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices, including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court in 2004 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) as the final appeals court

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor-general upon the recommendation of the attorney- general; justices appointed until compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; tribunals and authorities; district courts; specialized courts for issues related to employment, environment, family, Maori lands, youth, military; tribunals

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 43.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 31.4% (2018 est.)

other: 25.4% (2018 est.)

Legal system

common law system, based on English model, with special legislation and land courts for the Maori

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

International organization participation

ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF, SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); Anzac Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)


noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand

Natural resources

natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone

Geography - note

note 1: consists of two main islands and a number of smaller islands; South Island, the larger main island, is the 12th largest island in the world and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps; North Island is the 14th largest island in the world and is not as mountainous, but it is marked by volcanism

note 2: New Zealand lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: almost 90% of the population lives in cities and over three-quarters on North Island; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world

Economic overview

high-income Pacific island economy; strong agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, and energy sectors; reliant on Chinese market for exports; sustained growth; low unemployment; high living standards; sharp growth post COVID-19 lockdown


331 km condensate, 2,500 km gas, 172 km liquid petroleum gas, 288 km oil, 198 km refined products (2018)

Political parties and leaders

ACT New Zealand [David SEYMOUR]
Green Party [Marama DAVIDSON and James SHAW]
New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]
New Zealand Labor Party [Chris HIPKINS]
New Zealand National Party [Christopher LUXON]
Te Pāti Māori [Debbie NGAREWA-PACKER and Rawiri WAITITI]

note: in the October 2023 general election, 11 additional parties won votes but no seats in Parliament

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Auckland, Lyttelton, Manukau Harbor, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

the growth areas in in New Zealand’s telecom market have been in mobile broadband and fiber; New Zealand’s mobile market continues to undergo significant developments; the coverage of LTE networks has been supported by the Rural Broadband Initiative rollout, which added a significant number of mobile sites to new or underserved areas; the market is undergoing additional consolidation; offering fixed and mobile services


domestic: fixed-line roughly 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 114 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 64; landing points for the Southern Cross NEXT, Aqualink, Nelson-Levin, SCCN and Hawaiki submarine cable system providing links to Australia, Fiji, American Samoa, Kiribati, Samo, Tokelau, US and around New Zealand; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other) (2019)


predominately mountainous with large coastal plains

Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ

etymology: Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642; he named it Staten Landt, but Dutch cartographers renamed it Nova Zeelandia in 1645 after the Dutch province of Zeeland; British explorer Captain James COOK subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand when he mapped the islands in 1769


Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Map references


Irrigated land

7,000 sq km (2014)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bede Gilbert CORRY (since 16 September 2022)

chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5277

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$248.102 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA (2011)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AA (2011)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

327 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years

male: 20 years

female: 21 years (2020)


urban population: 87% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-owned Television New Zealand operates multiple TV networks and state-owned Radio New Zealand operates 3 radio networks and an external shortwave radio service to the South Pacific region; a small number of national commercial TV and radio stations and many regional commercial television and radio stations are available; cable and satellite TV systems are available, as are a range of streaming services (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "God Defend New Zealand"

lyrics/music: Thomas BRACKEN [English], Thomas Henry SMITH [Maori]/John Joseph WOODS

note: adopted 1940 as national song, adopted 1977 as co-national anthem; New Zealand has two national anthems with equal status; as a commonwealth realm, in addition to "God Defend New Zealand," "God Save the King" serves as a royal anthem (see United Kingdom); "God Save the King" normally played only when a member of the royal family or the governor-general is present; in all other cases, "God Defend New Zealand" is played
This is an audio of the National Anthem for New Zealand. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.673 million Auckland, 422,000 WELLINGTON (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

2.6 beds/1,000 population (2019)

National symbol(s)

Southern Cross constellation (four, five-pointed stars), kiwi (bird), silver fern; national colors: black, white, red (ochre)
New Zealand coat of arms
The coat of arms of New Zealand. The first quarter of the shield shows four stars that represent the Southern Cross, then three ships symbolizing the importance of New Zealand's sea trade. In the second quarter a fleece represents the farming industry. The wheat sheaf in the third quarter represents the agricultural industry, and the crossed hammers in the fourth quarter represent mining. The supporters on either side of the shield are a Māori Chieftain holding a taiaha (a Māori war weapon) and a European woman holding the New Zealand Ensign. St Edward's Crown, shown above the shield, was used in the Coronation ceremony of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The crown symbolizes Her Majesty as Queen of New Zealand under the New Zealand Royal Titles Act 1953. The Queen approved a revised version in 1956.

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.8 years

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.4

youth dependency ratio: 29

elderly dependency ratio: 24.4

potential support ratio: 4.1 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of New Zealand

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Population distribution

over three-quarters of New Zealanders, including the indigenous Maori, live on the North Island, primarily in urban areas

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 15 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 199

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,249,049 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,349,300,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Ethnic groups

European 64.1%, Maori 16.5%, Chinese 4.9%, Indian 4.7%, Samoan 3.9%, Tongan 1.8%, Cook Islands Maori 1.7%, English 1.5%, Filipino 1.5%, New Zealander 1%, other 13.7% (2018 est.)

note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group


Christian 37.3% (Catholic 10.1%, Anglican 6.8%, Presbyterian and Congregational 5.2%, Pentecostal 1.8%, Methodist 1.6%, Church of Jesus Christ 1.2%, other 10.7%), Hindu 2.7%, Maori 1.3%, Muslim, 1.3%, Buddhist 1.1%, other religion 1.6% (includes Judaism, Spiritualism and New Age religions, Baha'i, Asian religions other than Buddhism), no religion 48.6%, objected to answering 6.7% (2018 est.)

note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one religion


English (de facto official) 95.4%, Maori (de jure official) 4%, Samoan 2.2%, Northern Chinese 2%, Hindi 1.5%, French 1.2%, Yue 1.1%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official) 0.5%, other or not stated 17.2% (2018 est.)

note: shares sum to 124.1% due to multiple responses on the 2018 census

Imports - partners

China 22%, Australia 15%, United States 7%, Japan 6%, Thailand 5% (2021)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 5 (2022)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Aoraki/Mount Cook 3,724 m; note - the mountain's height was 3,764 m until 14 December 1991 when it lost about 10 m in an avalanche of rock and ice; erosion of the ice cap since then has brought the height down another 30 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 388 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

79.9% (2014/15)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Current health expenditure

10% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the NZDF is a small military with considerable overseas experience; it supports the country’s national security objectives by protecting New Zealand’s sovereignty, promoting its interests, safeguarding peace and security, and conducting peacekeeping, humanitarian, and other international missions; the Army’s primary combat units are an infantry brigade and a special forces regiment; the Navy has a small force of frigates and patrol vessels, while the Air Force has squadrons of maritime patrol, anti-submarine, and anti-surface warfare aircraft 

New Zealand is a member of the Five Powers Defense Arrangements (FPDA), a series of mutual assistance agreements reached in 1971 embracing Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and the UK; the FPDA commits the members to consult with one another in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of the members and to mutually decide what measures should be taken, jointly or separately; there is no specific obligation to intervene militarily

New Zealand has been part of the Australia, New Zealand, and US Security (ANZUS) Treaty since 1951; however, the US suspended its ANZUS security obligations to New Zealand in 1986 after New Zealand implemented a policy barring nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered warships from its ports; the US and New Zealand signed the Wellington Declaration in 2010, which reaffirmed close ties between the two countries, and in 2012 signed the Washington Declaration, which provided a framework for future security cooperation and defense dialogues; in 2016, a US naval ship conducted the first bilateral warship visit to New Zealand since the 1980s; New Zealand has Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status with the US, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation (2024)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 12,200 active-duty troops including active reservists (6,600 Army; 2,800 Navy; 2,800 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the NZDF is equipped mostly with Western-supplied weapons and equipment with the US as the leading provider (2023)

Military deployments

up to 220 Antarctica (summer season only) (2023)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.18 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3.405 million tons (2016 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 13.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.8% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 8.61 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 34.38 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 34.3 megatons (2020 est.)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Taupo - 610 sq km

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 natural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Te Wahipounamu – South West New Zealand (n); Tongariro National Park (m); New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands (n)


62 (2024)


production: 3.226 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.001 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1.14 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.09 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 7.575 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 19.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 5.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 54.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 18.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 4,771,126,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 4,946,237,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 31.148 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 13,400 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 184,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 21,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 99,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 41 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.9 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

57.6% (2023 est.)


0.27% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.26% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Space program overview

the New Zealand space sector model is mostly based on commercial space; NZSA and CSST primarily focus on developing space policy and strategy, bringing commercial space talent to New Zealand, and encouraging the commercial development of space technologies, particularly satellites and satellite/space launch vehicles (SLV); manufactures and launches satellites; builds and launches commercial SLVs; researches and develops a range of other space-related technologies, including propulsion systems; participates in international space programs and partners with a range of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Australia, Canada, the EU and its member states, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states, South Africa, and the US; has a small, but growing commercial space sector that contributed over $1 billion to the New Zealand economy in 2019 and provided over 12,000 jobs (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space launch site(s)

Mahia Peninsula Launch Complex (Hawke's Bay) (2023)

Space agency/agencies

New Zealand Space Agency (NZSA; established 2016 under the Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment); Center for Space Science and Technology (CSST; established 2017) (2023)

Labor force

2.971 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 11.4% (2021 est.)

male: 12.2%

female: 10.6%

Net migration rate

4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 37.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 36.9 years

female: 38.4 years

Debt - external

$190.621 billion (2019 est.)
$192.327 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$14.4 billion (2022 est.)
$16.114 billion (2021 est.)
$13.733 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

56,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

54.27% of GDP (2022 est.)
50.99% of GDP (2021 est.)
46.15% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

Total fertility rate

1.86 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.5% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)

Unemployment rate

3.3% (2022 est.)
3.78% (2021 est.)
4.6% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


5,109,702 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 4.896 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 96% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

40.344 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 5.139 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 25.76 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 9.445 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 268,838 sq km

land: 264,537 sq km

water: 4,301 sq km

note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Taxes and other revenues

29.77% (of GDP) (2022 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$231.534 billion (2022 est.)
$225.116 billion (2021 est.)
$214.054 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 94,000 km

paved: 61,600 km (includes 199 km of expressways)

unpaved: 32,400 km (2017)


202 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 5.846 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

36.2 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.17% (2022 est.)
3.94% (2021 est.)
1.71% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

1,782 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

-$21.627 billion (2022 est.)
-$14.804 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.401 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$45,200 (2022 est.)
$44,000 (2021 est.)
$42,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,764,984 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 13.7% (2020 est.)

male: 15% (2020 est.)

female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

30.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

186.804 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

12.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 9.615 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 41,169,838,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2,256,332,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 117 (2023)

by type: container ship 2, general cargo 12, oil tanker 3, other 100

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$71.35 billion (2022 est.)
$62.984 billion (2021 est.)
$48.118 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$57.485 billion (2022 est.)
$54.923 billion (2021 est.)
$50.173 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 757,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

115,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.17 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.41 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 81 years

female: 84.6 years

Real GDP growth rate

2.85% (2022 est.)
5.17% (2021 est.)
-0.65% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

3.94% (2021 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 4,128 km (2018)

narrow gauge: 4,128 km (2018) 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 5.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 21.5% (2017 est.)

services: 72.8% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.06% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (121 seats for 2023-26 term); 72 members directly elected in 65 single-seat constituencies and 7 Maori constituencies by simple majority vote and 49 directly elected by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)

last held on 14 October 2023 (next scheduled for October 2026)

election results:
percent of vote by party - National Party 38.1%, Labor Party 26.9%, Green Party 11.6%, ACT Party 8.6%, New Zealand First 6.1%; Maori Party 3.1%; seats by party - National Party 48, Labor Party 34, Green Party 15, ACT Party 11, New Zealand First 8, Maori Party 6; composition as of February 2024 - 67 men, 56 women; percentage of women 45.5%