Saint Pierre and Miquelon - PM - SPM - North America

Last updated: March 13, 2024
Saint Pierre and Miquelon flag
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Saint Pierre and Miquelon map

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon Factbook Data

Dependency status

overseas collectivity of France

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.42% (male 358/female 339)

15-64 years: 61.98% (male 1,590/female 1,630)

65 years and over: 24.6% (2023 est.) (male 563/female 715)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Saint Pierre and Miquelon. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

46 50 N, 56 20 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Area - comparative

one and half times the size of Washington, DC

Background

First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions. They attained the status of an overseas collectivity in 2003.

Environment - current issues

overfishing; recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment

Population below poverty line

NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

crustaceans, fish, medical instruments, electrical parts, pasta (2019)

Administrative divisions

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon

Agricultural products

vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Budget

revenues: $70 million (1996 est.)

expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.)

Capital

name: Saint-Pierre

geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: named after Saint Peter, the patron saint of fisherman

Imports - commodities

food preparation, packaged medicines, low-voltage protection equipment, cars, computers, iron structures (2019)

Climate

cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy

Coastline

120 km

Constitution

history: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

amendments: amendment procedures of France's constitution apply

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Christian POUGET (since 6 January 2021)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Bernard BRIAND (since 13 October 2020)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April and 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; Territorial Council president elected by Territorial Council councilors by absolute majority vote; term NA; election last held on 13 October 2020 (next to be held in NA)

election results:
2020: Bernard BRIAND elected President of Territorial Council; Territorial Council vote - 17 for, 2 abstentions

2017: Stephane LENORMAND elected President of Territorial Council vote - NA

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536

note: the flag of France used for official occasions

Independence

none (overseas collectivity collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

Industries

fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)

judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: NA

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.5% (2018 est.)

other: 78.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

French civil law

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - Saint Pierre 15, Miquelon 4; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 6-year terms);
Saint Pierre and Miquelon indirectly elects 1 senator to the French Senate by an electoral college to serve a 6-year term and directly elects 1 deputy to the French National Assembly by absolute majority vote to serve a 5-year term

elections: Territorial Council - first round held on 20 March and second round held on 27 March 2022 (next to be held in March 2028)
French Senate - last held on 27 September 2020 (next to be held no later than September 2025)
French National Assembly - last held on 12 and 19 June 2022 (next to be held by June 2027)

election results:
Territorial Council - percent of vote by party in first round - AD 45.9%, Focus on the Future 37%, Together to Build 17.1%; percent of vote by party in second round - AD 51.8%, Focus on the Future 38.1%, Together to Build 10.1%, seats by party - AD 15, Focus on the Future 4; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA
French Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 1 (affiliated with UMP)
French National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

International organization participation

UPU, WFTU (NGOs)

National holiday

Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790)

Nationality

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Geography - note

vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland

Economic overview

high-income, French North American territorial economy; primarily fishing exports; substantial French Government support; highly seasonal labor force; euro user; increasing tourism and aquaculture investments

Political parties and leaders

Archipelago Tomorrow (Archipel Domain) or AD (affiliated with The Republicans)
Focus on the Future (Cap sur l'Avenir) [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with Left Radical Party)
Together to Build (Ensemble pour Construire) [Karine CLAIREAUX]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate (2019)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity 76 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 508; landing point for the St Pierre and Miquelon Cable connecting Saint Pierre & Miquelon and Canada; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system (2019)

Terrain

mostly barren rock

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France

Country name

conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon

local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon

Location

Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Map references

North America

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Internet country code

.pm

GDP (official exchange rate)

$261.3 million (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 90.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

8 TV stations, all part of the French Overseas Network, and local cable provided by SPM Telecom; 3 of 4 radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2021)

National anthem

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Saint Pierre and Miquelon. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

6,000 SAINT-PIERRE (capital) (2018)

National symbol(s)

16th-century sailing ship

Citizenship

see France

Population distribution

most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island

Ethnic groups

Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions

Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Languages

French (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
French audio sample

Disputes - international

none identified


Elevation

highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Physicians density

NA

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

NA

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52

youth dependency ratio: 26.1

elderly dependency ratio: 25.9

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 91.4% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 8.6% of population (2017 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Imports - partners

France 69%, Canada 22% (2019)

Exports - partners

Canada 79%, France 8%, Belgium 6% (2019)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.76 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

64.1% (2023 est.)

Labor force

4,429 (2015)

Net migration rate

-7.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 50.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 49.9 years

female: 51.2 years

Debt - external

NA

Refined petroleum products - imports

650 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.59 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

8.7% (2015 est.)
9.9% (2008 est.)

Population

5,195 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

3.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)

Internet users

total: 5,099 (2022 est.)

percent of population: 88.7% (2022 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

84,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 84,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 242 sq km

land: 242 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Taxes and other revenues

26.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$261.3 million (2015 est.)
$215.3 million (2006 est.)

note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

Roadways

total: 117 km (2009)

paved: 80 km (2009)

unpaved: 37 km (2009)

Airports

2 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6 deaths/1,000 live births

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.5% (2015)
4.5% (2010)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$46,200 (2006 est.)
$34,900 (2005)

Energy consumption per capita

0 Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

6.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 26,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 47.267 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.733 million kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$95.35 million (2010 est.)
$68.2 million (2005 est.)

Exports

$6.641 million (2010 est.)
$5.5 million (2005 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,800 (2015 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.3 years

female: 84.1 years

Real GDP growth rate

NA

Industrial production growth rate

NA

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2006 est.)

industry: 15% (2006 est.)

services: 83% (2006 est.)

Education expenditures

NA

Population growth rate

-1.19% (2023 est.)