Puerto Rico - PR - PRI - PUR - Central America and the Caribbean

Last updated: April 18, 2024
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Puerto Rico Factbook Data

Dependency status

unincorporated organized territory of the US with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the US conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.84% (male 199,933/female 192,690)

15-64 years: 62.98% (male 921,003/female 1,004,395)

65 years and over: 24.18% (2023 est.) (male 317,522/female 421,768)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Puerto Rico. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

18 15 N, 66 30 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; hurricanes

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island


Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following Christopher COLUMBUS' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917. Popularly elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self-government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose not to alter the existing political status with the US, but the results of a 2012 vote left open the possibility of American statehood. Economic recession on the island has led to a net population loss since about 2005, as large numbers of residents moved to the US mainland. The trend has accelerated since 2010; in 2014, Puerto Rico experienced a net population loss to the mainland of 64,000, more than double the net loss of 26,000 in 2010. Hurricane Maria struck the island on 20 September 2017 causing catastrophic damage, including destruction of the electrical grid that had been crippled by Hurricane Irma just two weeks before. It was the worst storm to hit the island in eight decades, and damage is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars. A referendum held in late 2020 showed a narrow preference for American statehood.

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; occasional droughts cause water shortages; industrial pollution

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, medical cultures/vaccines, hormones, orthopedic and medical appliances, sulfur compounds (2019)

Administrative divisions

none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco

Agricultural products

milk, plantains, bananas, poultry, tomatoes, mangoes/guavas, eggs, oranges, gourds, papayas

Military and security forces

no regular indigenous military forces; US National Guard (Army and Air), State Guard, Police Force (2024)


revenues: $9.268 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: $9.974 billion (2017 est.)


name: San Juan

geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 66 07 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name dates to 1521 and the founding of the city under the name "Ciudad de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico" (City of Saint John the Baptist of Puerto Rico)

Imports - commodities

nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, refined petroleum, medical cultures/vaccines, cars (2019)


tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation


501 km


history: previous 1900 (Organic Act, or Foraker Act); latest ratified by referendum 3 March 1952, approved 3 July 1952, effective 25 July 1952

amendments: proposed by a concurrent resolution of at least two-thirds majority by the total Legislative Assembly membership; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses and approval by a majority of voters in a special referendum; if passed by at least three-fourths Assembly vote, the referendum can be held concurrently with the next general election; constitutional articles such as the republican form of government or the bill of rights cannot be amended; amended 1952

Exchange rates

the US dollar is used

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Pedro PIERLUISI (since 2 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor with the consent of the Legislative Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of Puerto Rico do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

election results:
2020: Pedro PIERLUISI elected governor; percent of vote - Pedro PIERLUISI (PNP) 32.9%, Carlos DELGADO (PPD) 31.6%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 14.2%, Juan DALMAU (PIP) 13.7%, other 7.6%

2016: Ricardo ROSSELLO elected governor; percent of vote - Ricardo ROSSELLO (PNP) 41.8%, David BERNIER (PPD) 38.9%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 11.1%, Manuel CIDRE (independent) 5.7%

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of red (top, center, and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; the white star symbolizes Puerto Rico; the three sides of the triangle signify the executive, legislative and judicial parts of the government; blue stands for the sky and the coastal waters; red symbolizes the blood shed by warriors, while white represents liberty, victory, and peace

note: design initially influenced by the US flag, but similar to the Cuban flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed


none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)


pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 8 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor and confirmed by majority Senate vote; judges serve until compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; First Instance Court comprised of superior and municipal courts

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 22% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 5.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 63.2% (2018 est.)

other: 14.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Spanish civil code and within the framework of the US federal system


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.4%

male: 92.4%

female: 92.4% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

International organization participation

AOSIS (observer), Caricom (observer), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNWTO (associate), UPU, WFTU (NGOs)

National holiday

US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); Puerto Rico Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)


noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Puerto Rican

Natural resources

some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil

Geography - note

important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north

Economic overview

US Caribbean island territorial economy; hit hard by COVID-19 and hurricanes; declining labor force and job growth after a decade of continuous recession; capital-based industry and tourism; high poverty; energy import-dependent

Political parties and leaders

Citizens' Victory Movement (Movimiento Victoria Ciudadana) or MVC [Manuel NATAL Albelo]
Democratic Party of Puerto Rico [Charlie RODRIGUEZ]
New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro PIERLUISI Urrutia] (pro-US statehood)
Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Jose Luis DALMAU] (pro-commonwealth)
Project Dignity (Projecto Dignidad) or PD [Cesar VASQUEZ Muniz]
Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Jenniffer GONZALEZ]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Ensenada Honda, Mayaguez, Playa de Guayanilla, Playa de Ponce, San Juan

container port(s) (TEUs): San Juan (1,438,218) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Guayanilla Bay


18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Puerto Rico has a small telecom market which in recent years has been deeply affected by a combination of economic mismanagement and natural disasters, including two hurricanes which landed in late 2017 and an earthquake which struck in January 2020; these disasters caused considerable destruction of telecom infrastructure, which in turn led to a marked decline in the number of subscribers for all services; compounding these difficulties have been a long-term economic downturn which encouraged many people not to resume telecom services after these were restored; after some delay, the FCC in late 2019 issued an order relating to the release of funds to help rebuild telecom infrastructure; although Puerto Rico is a US territory it lags well behind the mainland US states in terms of fixed-line and broadband services; this is partly due to high unemployment rates (and consequently low disposable income) and poor telecoms investment in a market; the mobile market has been impacted by several mergers and acquisitions over the last few years; the activities of large multinational telcos continue to impact the Puerto Rican market; operators have secured spectrum in the 600MHz and 3.5GHz bands, thus enabling them to expand the reach of LTE services and launch services based on 5G;  the growing number of submarine cables landing in Puerto Rico is helping to drive down the cost of telecom services, creating a demand for streaming content from abroad; the uptake of cloud-based applications for both business and individuals is also creating a heightened demand for affordable services (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 22 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 112 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 1-787, 939; landing points for the GTMO-PR, AMX-1, BRUSA, GCN, PCCS, SAm-1, Southern Caribbean Fiber, Americas-II, Antillas, ARCOS, SMPR-1, and Taino-Carib submarine cables providing connectivity to the mainland US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2019)


mostly mountains with coastal plain in north; precipitous mountains to the sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas

Government type

unincorporated organized territory of the US with local self-government; republican form of territorial government with separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches; note - reference Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act, 2 March 1917, as amended by Public Law 600, 3 July 1950

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the US

Country name

conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

conventional short form: Puerto Rico

abbreviation: PR

etymology: Christopher COLUMBUS named the island San Juan Bautista (Saint John the Baptist) and the capital city and main port Cuidad de Puerto Rico (Rich Port City); over time, however, the names were shortened and transposed and the island came to be called Puerto Rico and its capital San Juan


Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Irrigated land

220 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (territory of the US)

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$113.435 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Standard & Poors rating: D (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 18 years (2018)


urban population: 93.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

more than 30 TV stations operating; cable TV subscription services are available; roughly 125 radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "La Borinquena" (The Puerto Rican)

lyrics/music: Manuel Fernandez JUNCOS/Felix Astol ARTES

note: music adopted 1952, lyrics adopted 1977; the local anthem's name is a reference to the indigenous name of the island, Borinquen; the music was originally composed as a dance in 1867 and gained popularity in the early 20th century; there is some evidence that the music was written by Francisco RAMIREZ; as a commonwealth of the US, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Puerto Rico. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

2.440 million SAN JUAN (capital) (2023)

National symbol(s)

Puerto Rican spindalis (bird), coqui (frog); national colors: red, white, blue

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 87.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 12.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 117.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -129.8% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56.3

youth dependency ratio: 21.3

elderly dependency ratio: 34.9

potential support ratio: 2.9 (2021 est.)


see United States

Population distribution

population clusters tend to be found along the coast, the largest of these is found in and around San Juan; an exception to this is a sizeable population located in the interior of the island immediately south of the capital around Caguas; most of the interior, particularly in the western half of the island, is dominated by the Cordillera Central mountains, where population density is low

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

White 75.8%, Black/African American 12.4%, other 8.5% (includes American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, other Pacific Islander, and others), mixed 3.3% (2010 est.)

note: 99% of the population is Latino


Roman Catholic 56%, Protestant 33% (largely Pentecostal), other 2%, atheist 1%, none 7% (2014 est.)


Spanish, English

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Spanish audio sample

Disputes - international

migrants from the Dominican Republic and Haiti attempt to cross the treacherous 148-km-wide (92 mile) Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work


highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 261 m

Physicians density

3.06 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure


Total water withdrawal

municipal: 800 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 2.37 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 110 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

7.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Ireland 38%, Singapore 9%, Switzerland 8%, South Korea 5% (2019)

Exports - partners

Italy 15%, Netherlands 15%, Belgium 9%, Japan 8%, Germany 8%, Austria 8%, Spain 7%, China 5% (2019)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4,170,953 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 583,933 tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 14% (2013 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural); note - excerpted from the US entry

selected World Heritage Site locales: La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site


38 (2024)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 1.361 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.502 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 94.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 1,366,512,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 1,366,512,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 79,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.61 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

37.4% (2023 est.)

Labor force

1.16 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.5% (2021 est.)

male: 19.4%

female: 15.6%

Net migration rate

-10.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 45.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 43.6 years

female: 47.2 years

Debt - external

$56.82 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$52.98 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

34 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

127,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

51.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.25 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

6% (2022 est.)
7.9% (2021 est.)
8.89% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


3,057,311 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 2,564,100 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 77.7% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

18.999 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 3.774 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 11.407 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 3.818 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 9,104 sq km

land: 8,959 sq km

water: 145 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

8.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$110.501 billion (2022 est.)
$106.908 billion (2021 est.)
$106.447 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 26,862 km (2012) (includes 454 km of expressways)


20 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,661,176 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.8% (2017 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

18,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$0 (2017 est.)
$0 (2016 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$34,300 (2022 est.)
$32,800 (2021 est.)
$32,400 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 671,284 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2020 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

94.379 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

10 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

7.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 6.18 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 15,203,140,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.5 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$49.01 billion (2017 est.)
$48.86 billion (2016 est.)


$73.17 billion (2017 est.)
$73.2 billion (2016 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 739,111 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 78.7 years

female: 85.3 years

Real GDP growth rate

3.36% (2022 est.)
0.43% (2021 est.)
-4.2% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

4.3% (2014 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 50.1% (2017 est.)

services: 49.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.29% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

bicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa consists of:
Senate or Senado (30 seats statutory, 27 current; 16 members directly elected in 8 2-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 11 at-large members directly elected by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (51 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 12, NP 10, MVC 2, PD 1, PIP 1, independent 1; composition as of April 2024 - men 14, women 13, percentage women 48.1%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 26, PNP 21, MVC 2, PIP 1, PD 1; composition - men 41, women 10, percentage women 19.6%; note - total Legislative Assembly percentage women 29.5%

note: Puerto Rico directly elects 1 member by simple majority vote to serve a 4-year term as a commissioner to the US House of Representatives; the commissioner can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House but not when legislation is submitted for a 'full floor' House vote; election of commissioner last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held in November 2022)