Portugal - PT - PRT - POR - Europe

Last updated: April 18, 2024
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Portugal Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Randi Charno LEVINE (since 22 April 2022)

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisboa

mailing address: 5320 Lisbon Place, Washington DC  20521-5320

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

email address and website:

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.85% (male 672,673/female 641,409)

15-64 years: 65.18% (male 3,274,201/female 3,389,374)

65 years and over: 21.96% (2023 est.) (male 895,576/female 1,349,917)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Portugal. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Virginia

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service (abolished 2004) but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period of 2-6 years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service; initial voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women made up about 14% of the military's full-time personnel


Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Population below poverty line

16.4% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 26.9% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, tires, paper (2021)

Exports - partners

Spain 26%, France 12%, Germany 12%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2021)

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Agricultural products

milk, tomatoes, olives, grapes, maize, potatoes, pork, apples, oranges, poultry

Military and security forces

Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas): Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps, aka Corpo de Fuzileiros or Corps of Fusiliers), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP)

Ministry of Internal Administration: Foreigners and Borders Service, Public Security Service, National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2024)

note: the Foreigners and Borders Service has jurisdiction over immigration and border matters, the Public Security Police has jurisdiction in cities, and the GNR has jurisdiction in rural areas; the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to both the Ministry of Internal Administration and to the Ministry of National Defense; it is not part of the Armed Forces, but may be placed under the operational command of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces in the event of a national emergency; the GNR describes itself as a hinge between the Armed Forces and the police forces and other security services


revenues: $102.052 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $101.854 billion (2019 est.)


name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

time zone note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)

etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, natural gas (2021)


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


1,793 km


history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976

amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis MONTENEGRO (since 2 April 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held in January 2026); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
2021: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (ran as an independent but is a member of PS) 13%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.3%, other 10.1%

2016: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, António SAMPAIO DA NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria DE BELEM ROSEIRA (PS) 4.2%, other 10.8%


note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

Illicit drugs

a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin



1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km

border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)

other: 22.5% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.9%

male: 97.8%

female: 95.9% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died


noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; they are two of the four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are the Canary Islands (Spain) and Cabo Verde

Economic overview

fast-growing, high-income European economy; EU and NATO member; heavy Chinese infrastructure ownership; key tourism, banking, and telecommunications sectors; declining populations; major energy exporter


1,344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Alliance or AD (2024 electoral alliance in the Azores, includes PSD, CDS-PP, PPM)
Democratic and Social Center/People's Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Nuno MELO]
Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
Enough (Chega) [Andre VENTURA]
Liberal Initiative (Iniciativa Liberal) or IL [Rui ROCHA]
LIVRE or L [Ru TAVARES & Teresea MOTA]
People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Ines SOUSA REAL]
People's Monarchist Party or PPM [Gonçalo DA CAMARA PEREIRA]
Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Paulo RAIMUNDO]
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD [Luis MONTENEGRO] (formerly the Partido Popular Democratico or PPD)
Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Pedro Nunes SANTOS]
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Mariana MORTAGUA]
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Paulo RAIMUNDO] (includes PCP and PEV) (2024)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,420,000) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Portugal has a medium-sized telecom market with a strong mobile sector and a growing broadband customer base; before the pandemic, the country had seen improving economic growth, following several years of austerity measures; revenue among some operators remains under pressure, though investments in network upgrades are continuing in an effort to attract customers to high-end services; Portugal’s broadband services have grown steadily in recent years, largely the result of joint efforts between the regulator and the key market operators which have invested in significant infrastructure upgrades; these operators are focused on fiber-based services, resulting in a migration of subscribers from digital subscriber line DSL infrastructure; the government has also supported open-access wholesale networks; the mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) market remains largely undeveloped, partly because network operators have their own low-cost brands; collectively, MVNOs have about 2.9% share of the market; population coverage by 3G infrastructure is universal, and most investment in the sector is being directed to LTE and 5G technologies; the MNOs have trialed 5G and are looking to launch commercial services (2021)

domestic: fixed-lineis 52 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is 121 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)


the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal


Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Map references


Irrigated land

5,662 sq km (2019)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Antonio DUARTE LOPES (since 7 June 2022)

chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Boston, Newark (NJ), New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Providence (RI)

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 59,920 (Ukraine) (as of 31 January 2024)

stateless persons: 55 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$255.197 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2007)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

77.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 17 years (2020)


urban population: 67.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal, the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Portugal. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

3.001 million LISBON (capital), 1.325 million Porto (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

5.48 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.9 years (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

73.9% (2014)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 56

youth dependency ratio: 20.8

elderly dependency ratio: 35.2

potential support ratio: 2.8 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 168

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,367,956 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 454.21 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Portuguese 95%; citizens from Portugal’s former colonies in Africa, Asia (Han Chinese), and South America (Brazilian) and other foreign born 5%


Roman Catholic 79.7%, Protestant 2.2%, other Christian 2.5%, other non-Christian, 1.1%, none 14.5% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population 15 years of age and older


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Imports - partners

Spain 31%, Germany 12%, France 6%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2021)

Disputes - international

Portugal-Spain: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz


highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 372 m

Current health expenditure

10.6% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Portuguese military is an all-volunteer force with the primary responsibilities of external defense, humanitarian operations, and fulfilling Portugal’s commitments to European and international security; Portugal was one of the original signers of the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949 establishing NATO, and the Alliance forms a key pillar of Portugal’s defense policy; Portugal is also a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy, and it regularly participates in a variety of EU, NATO, and UN deployments around the world; the military’s largest commitments include air, ground, and naval forces under NATO-led missions and standing task forces in the Baltics, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean Sea; the military also participates regularly in exercises with NATO partners 

Portugal has had a standing army since the 1570s; the modern-day Army’s primary combat forces are a heavy mechanized brigade, a light mechanized “intervention” brigade, and a rapid reaction brigade comprised of commandos, paratroopers, and special forces; there are also garrison units in the Azores and Madeira 

Portugal’s Navy is one of the oldest in the world, having been permanently established in in the 1300s, and maritime security has long been a key component of the military’s portfolio; the current Navy has a wide variety of missions in addition to war fighting, such as combating piracy, evacuating national citizens from conflict zones, fishery inspections, maritime interdiction, search and rescue, providing support to other domestic security agencies, and assisting with scientific research; its principal warships are 11 frigates, corvettes, and offshore patrol ships, and two attack-type submarines; the Navy also has a small marine force, which constitutes the Navy’s commando and special operations component 

the Air Force was formed in 1952 although the first flying unit was created in 1911; the current Air Force has about 20 US-made fighter aircraft, as well as reconnaissance and surveillance, maritime patrol, transport, search and rescue, and firefighting fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 25,000 active-duty personnel (12,000 Army; 7,000 Navy, including about 1,000 marines; 6,000 Air Force); 24,500 National Republican Guard (military personnel) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes mostly European- and US-origin weapons systems along with a smaller mix of domestically produced equipment; in recent years, leading foreign suppliers have included Germany and the US; Portugal's defense industry is primarily focused on shipbuilding (2023)

Military deployments

225 Central African Republic (MINUSCA/EUTM); approximately 200 Lithuania (NATO); approximately 230 Romania (NATO) (2023)

note 1: in 2021, Portugal deployed about 80 troops to Mozambique to assist with the EU training mission

note 2: Portugal also participates in several NATO maritime and air policing operations, as well as some EU international missions

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 880 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.83 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.71 million tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 764,433 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 16.2% (2014 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 16.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 48.74 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 10.93 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 17 (16 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Évora (c); Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (c); Cultural Landscape of Sintra (c); Laurisilva of Madeira (n); Historic Guimarães (c); Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon (c); Convent of Christ in Tomar (c); Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde (c); University of Coimbra – Alta and Sofia (c); Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga (c)


63 (2024)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 957,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 238,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 36 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 39% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 23.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 26.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 5.94 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 6.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 8,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 249,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 255,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.7 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

52.6% (2023 est.)


4.03% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.32% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Space program overview

has a national space program which is is integrated within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA); builds and operates satellites; researches and develops a range of space-related technologies with an emphasis on small/micro/nano satellites for remote sensing (RS), navigation, science/technology, and telecommunications, as well as satellite launch services; in addition to the ESA/EU and their member states, cooperates with the space agencies and industries of a variety of countries, including those of Algeria, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Morocco, South Korea, and the US, as well as such international organizations and projects as the Europe South Observatory (ESO) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) Observatory project; Portugal Space acts as a business and development unit for universities, research entities and companies (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space launch site(s)

in 2019, announced intentions to build a commercial space port on Santa Maria Island in the Azores (2023)

Space agency/agencies

Portugal Space (aka Portuguese Space Agency or Agência Espacial Portuguesa; established 2019); Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT; government agency that funds space research established in 2009) (2023)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 6 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Açores; Arouca; Estrela; Naturtejo da Meseta Meridional; Oeste; Terras de Cavaleiros (2024)

Labor force

5.296 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 23.1% (2021 est.)

male: 20.6%

female: 26.2%

Net migration rate

1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 46 years (2023 est.)

male: 44 years

female: 47.9 years

Debt - external

$462.431 billion (2019 est.)
$483.206 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

12 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$32.232 billion (2022 est.)
$32.535 billion (2021 est.)
$29.46 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


210 km (2011) (on Douro River from Porto)

Refined petroleum products - imports

78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Total fertility rate

1.44 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

6.01% (2022 est.)
6.58% (2021 est.)
6.8% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


10,223,150 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 8.2 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

50.37 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 33.429 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 12.059 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Taxes and other revenues

22.01% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$372.331 billion (2022 est.)
$348.535 billion (2021 est.)
$329.623 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 11,217 km (2022)


130 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 12,476,165 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

34.7 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.83% (2022 est.)
1.27% (2021 est.)
-0.01% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

-$3.108 billion (2022 est.)
-$2.987 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.292 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$35,800 (2022 est.)
$33,600 (2021 est.)
$32,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,160,795 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 25.4% (2020 est.)

male: 30.5% (2020 est.)

female: 20.2% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

101.734 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 22.364 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 48.409 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 6.097 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 5.269 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 888 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 110, container ship 299, general cargo 191, oil tanker 29, other 259

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

0.4% (2015/16)


$131.627 billion (2022 est.)
$112.413 billion (2021 est.)
$89.515 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$126.541 billion (2022 est.)
$105.648 billion (2021 est.)
$85.128 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,437,049 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 6.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.34 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 78.6 years

female: 85 years

Real GDP growth rate

6.83% (2022 est.)
5.74% (2021 est.)
-8.3% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

1.84% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 2,526 km (2020) 1,696 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)

services: 75.7% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.13% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.17% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

last held on 10 March 2024 (next to be held on 30 September 2028); note - early elections were called after Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA resigned on 7 November 2023

election results:
percent of vote by party - AD (PSD, CDS-PP, PPM) 28.8%, PS, 28%, Enough 18.1%, IL 4.9%, BE 4.4%, L 3.2%, CDU 3.2%, other 9.4%; seats by party - AD (PSD, CDS-PP, PPM) 80, PS 78, Enough 50, IL 8, BE 5, L 4, CDU 4, other 1; composition as of March 2024 - men 155, women 75, percentage women 32.6%