Serbia - RS - SRB - SRB - Europe

Last updated: April 09, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher R. HILL (since 1 April 2022)

embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade

mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070

telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000

FAX: [381] (11) 706-4481

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.45% (male 498,534/female 468,853)

15-64 years: 65.81% (male 2,216,701/female 2,188,267)

65 years and over: 19.74% (2023 est.) (male 547,344/female 773,676)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Serbia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 21 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


8 (2024)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription abolished in 2011 (2024)

note: as of 2021, women made up about 16% of the military's full-time personnel


In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. The monarchy remained in power until 1945, when the communist Partisans headed by Josip Broz (aka TITO) took control of the newly created Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). After TITO died in 1980, communism in Yugoslavia gradually gave way to resurgent nationalism. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia, and his calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in 1992, and MILOSEVIC led military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed, and international intervention led to the signing of the Dayton Accords in 1995.

In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo resulted in a brutal Serbian counterinsurgency campaign. Serbia rejected a proposed international settlement, and NATO responded with a bombing campaign that forced Serbian forces to withdraw from Kosovo in June 1999. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. In 2006, Montenegro seceded and declared itself an independent nation. 

In 2008, Kosovo also declared independence -- an action Serbia still refuses to recognize. In 2013, Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries. Additional agreements were reached in 2015 and 2023, but implementation remains incomplete. Serbia has been an official candidate for EU membership since 2012, and President Aleksandar VUCIC has promoted the ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2025.

Environment - current issues

air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube; inadequate management of domestic, industrial, and hazardous waste

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

21.2% (2020 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 27.1% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

insulated wiring, tires, corn, cars, iron products, copper (2019)

Exports - partners

Germany 12%, Italy 10%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7%, Romania 6%, Russia 5%  (2019)

Administrative divisions

117 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 28 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)

municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada

cities: Beograd (Belgrade), Bor, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Prokuplje, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac*, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*

note: the northern 37 municipalities and 8 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sugar beet, milk, sunflower seed, potatoes, soybeans, plums/sloes, apples, barley

Military and security forces

Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Army (aka Land Forces; includes Riverine Component, consisting of a naval flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces, Serbian Guard

Serbian Ministry of Internal Affairs: General Police Directorate (2024)

note: the Serbian Guard is a brigade-sized unit that is directly subordinate to the Serbian Armed Forces Chief of General Staff; its duties include safeguarding key defense facilities and rendering military honors to top foreign, state, and military officials 


revenues: $21.858 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $25.72 billion (2020 est.)

note: data include both central government and local goverment budgets


name: Belgrade (Beograd)

geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the Serbian "Beograd" means "white fortress" or "white city" and dates back to the 9th century; the name derives from the white fortress wall that once enclosed the city

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)


0 km (landlocked)


history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006

amendments: proposed by at least one third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require passage by simple majority vote in a referendum

Exchange rates

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
111.662 (2022 est.)
99.396 (2021 est.)
103.163 (2020 est.)
105.25 (2019 est.)
100.175 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)

head of government: Acting Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 20 March 2024); note - former Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC stepped down on 20 March 2024 after her election as parliament speaker; Ivica DACIC will be acting prime minister until the next election (date not yet set)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 December 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister elected by the National Assembly; note - on 1 November 2023 President VUCIC dissolved parliament and called for snap elections on 17 December 2023

election results:
2022: Aleksandar VUCIC reelected in first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 60%, Zdravko PONOS (US) 18.9%, Milos JOVANOVIC (NADA) 6.1%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri-POKS) 4.5%, Milica DJURDJEVIC STAMENKOVSKI (SSZ) 4.3%, other 6.2%

2017: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, other 7.3%, invalid/blank 1.6%; Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC reelected by the National Assembly on 5 October 2020; National Assembly vote - NA

Flag description

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels (fire strikers) or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

Illicit drugs

drug trafficking groups are major players in the procurement and transportation of of large quantities of cocaine destined for European markets


5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 1217 (Serbian Kingdom established); 16 April 1346 (Serbian Empire established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Serbian independence); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)


automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of 36 judges, including the court president); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member independent body consisting of  8 judges elected by the National Assembly and 3 ex-officio members; justices appointed by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges elected - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; initial appointment of Supreme Court judges by the HJC is 3 years and beyond that period tenure is permanent; Constitutional Court judges elected for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: basic courts, higher courts, appellate courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, commercial courts, and misdemeanor courts

Land boundaries

total: 2,322 km

border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km; Bulgaria 344 km; Croatia 314 km; Hungary 164 km; Kosovo 366 km; North Macedonia 101 km; Montenegro 157 km; Romania 531 km

Land use

agricultural land: 57.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 37.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 16.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 31.6% (2018 est.)

other: 10.5% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected by party list proportional representation vote in a single nationwide constituency to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 December 2023 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia Must Stop 48%, SPN 24.4%, SPS-JS-ZS 6.7%, NADA 5.2%, MI-GIN 4.8%, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 1.7%, SPP-DSHV 0.8%, SDAS 0.6%, Political Battle of the Albanians Continues 0.4%, RS-NKPJ 0.3%, other 7.1%; seats by party/coalition - Serbia Must Stop 128, SPN 65, SPS-JS-ZS 18, NADA 13, MI-GIN 13, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 6, SPP-DSHV 3, SDAS 2, Political Battle of the Albanians Continues 1, RS-NKPJ 1; composition - men NA, women NA; percent of women NA%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.5%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.1% (2019)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation


note: Serbia is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

National holiday

Statehood Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted


noun: Serb(s)

adjective: Serbian

Natural resources

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Geography - note

landlocked; controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

Economic overview

upper middle-income Balkan economy; current EU accession candidate; hit by COVID-19; pursuing green growth development; manageable public debt; new anticorruption efforts; falling unemployment; historic Russian relations; energy import-dependent


1,936 km gas, 413 km oil

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM or VMSZ [Shepherd BALINT, acting]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina or DSHV [Tomislav ZIGMANOV]
Democratic Party or DS [Zoran LUTOVAC]
Ecological Uprising or EU [Aleksandar JOVANOVIC]
Green - Left Front or ZLF [Radomir LAZOVIC, Biljana DORDEVIC]
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
Justice and Reconciliation Party or SPP [Usame ZUKORLIC] (formerly Bosniak Democratic Union of Sandzak or BDZS)
Movement for Reversal or PZP [Janko VESELINOVIC]
Movement for the Restoration of the Kingdom of Serbia or POKS [Vojislav MIHAILOVIC]
Movement of Free Citizens or PSG [Pavle GRBOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
National Democratic Alternative or NADA [Milos JOVANOVIC and Vojislav MIHAILOVIC] (electoral coalition includes NDSS and POKS)
New Communist Party of Yugoslavia or NKPJ [Aleksandar BANJANAC]
New Democratic Party of Serbia or NDSS or New DSS [Milos JOVANOVIC] (formerly Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS)
New Face of Serbia or NLS [Milos PARANDICOVIC]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDAS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of Freedom and Justice or SSP [Dragan DJILAS]
Party of United Pensioners, Farmers, and Proletarians of Serbia – Solidarity and Justice or PUPS - Solidarity and Justice [Milan KRKOBABIC] (formerly Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS)
People's Movement of Serbia or NPS [Miroslav ALEKSIC]
People's Movement of Serbs from Kosovo and Metohija or Fatherland [Stavica RISTIC]
People's Peasant Party or NSS [Marijan RISTICEVIC]
Political Battle of the Albanians Continues [Shaip KAMBERI]
Russian Party or RS [Slobodan NIKOLIC]
Serbia Against Violence or SPN [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes DS, SSP, ZLF, Zajedno, NPS, PSG, EU, PZP, USS Sloga, NLS, Fatherland]
Serbia Must Not Stop [Milenko JOVANOV] (electoral coalitions includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, PSS, SNP, SPO, PS, NSS, USS)
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Miloš VUCEVIC]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together or ZAJEDNO [Biljana STOJKOVIC, Nebojsa ZELENOVIC]
United Peasant Party or USS [Milija MILETIC]
United Serbia or JS [Dragan MARKOVIC]
United Trade Unions of Serbia "Sloga" or USS Sloga [Zeljko VESELINOVIC]
We - The Voice from the People or MI-GIN [collective leadership)

note: Serbia has more than 110 registered political parties and citizens' associations

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)


18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Serbia’s telecom industry has been liberalized in line with the principles of the EU’s regulatory framework for communications, focused on encouraging competition in telecom products and services, and ensuring universal access; considerable network investment has been undertaken in Serbia by incumbent and alternative operators in recent years, despite economic difficulties; this has helped to stimulate internet usage, which has also been bolstered by improved affordability as prices are reduced through competition; the pandemic has stimulated consumer take up of services, particularly mobile data; the government’s various initiatives to improve rural broadband availability have also been supported by European development loans; Serbia’s high mobile services, partly the result of multiple SIM card use, has weighed on revenue growth in recent years, placing further pressure on operators to develop business models which encourage consumer use of mobile data services also in response to the continued substitution of fixed-line for mobile voice calls; the regulator has yet to auction 5G-suitable frequencies, though operators are already investing in their networks in preparation for this next growth frontier; during 2021 the regulator resumed the process towards a 5G spectrum auction, which had been delayed owing to the onset of the covid-19 pandemic (2022)

domestic: fixed-line over 37 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 124 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 381


extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Serbia

conventional short form: Serbia

local long form: Republika Srbija

local short form: Srbija

former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.


Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Map references


Irrigated land

520 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marko DJURIC (since 18 January 2021)

chancery: 1333 16th Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 507-8654

FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 17,334 (Croatia), 7,997 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (mid-year 2022)

IDPs: 196,066 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2022)

stateless persons: 2,594 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2022)

note: 1,045,323 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$63.563 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2019)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB+ (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

162.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.) (note - includes Kosovo)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2021)


urban population: 57.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Kosovo

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.4% of population

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.6% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)

lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Serbia. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.408 million BELGRADE (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.11 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

5.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

white double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.2 years (2020 est.)

note: data does not cover Kosovo or Metohija

Contraceptive prevalence rate

62.3% (2019)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78.2% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 52.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -61.3% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.8

youth dependency ratio: 21.9

elderly dependency ratio: 31.9

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

note: data include Kosovo


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 43

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,262,703 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 17.71 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 95.7% of population

total: 97.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 4.3% of population

total: 2.1% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)

note: most ethnic Albanians boycotted the 2011 census; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Serbia's population


Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)

note: most ethnic Albanians boycotted the 2011 census


Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%; note - Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina; most ethnic Albanians boycotted the 2011 census (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Knjiga svetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Serbian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Serbian audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 13%, Russia 9%, Italy 8%, Hungary 6%, China 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Serbia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government identified more victims and its Center for Protection of Trafficking Victims (CPTV) established a panel with a psychologist, educator, and social worker to conduct victim assessments within 24 hours of a referral; a court seized a house built from the profits of forced begging and gave ownership of the house to the victim as restitution; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts, compared with the previous reporting period, to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; fewer investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of traffickers took place; officials decreased resources for the CPTV, despite its lack of staff, skills, and resources to assess victims, coordinate care, and run the CTPV shelter; standard operating procedures on victim identification remained unclear, and implementation was “recommended” rather than required; authorities inappropriately penalized victims with imprisonment, probation, and fines for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; the Anti-Trafficking Council has not met in three years, and the government has not adopted the 2021-2022 National Action Plan; official complicity in trafficking or inaction remained significant concerns; the government did not fully protect victims or fully investigate credible allegations that approximately 500 Vietnamese workers were subjected to forced labor at a factory owned by China; therefore, Serbia remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the second consecutive year (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Serbia, as well as Serbians abroad; Serbian women and girls are exploited in sex trafficking in Serbia, neighboring countries, and throughout Europe; Serbian nationals, primarily men, are exploited in forced labor in labor-intensive sectors, such as construction, in European countries—including Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Russia, and Switzerland—and the UAE; children, particularly Roma, are victims within the country in sex trafficking, forced labor, forced begging, and petty crime; foreign victims in Serbia have been identified from Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Cameroon, Croatia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, and Vietnam; thousands of migrants and refugees from the Middle East, Africa, and Asia transiting through or stranded in Serbia are vulnerable to trafficking; the government has not reported fully investigating credible allegations during the past several years of Vietnamese victims of forced labor in a Chinese-owned factory and instead has stated that the workers are not trafficking victims; Chinese workers at the same factory conducted a strike during the reporting period over claims that they had not been paid (2023)

Disputes - international

Serbia-Bosnia and Herzegovina: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Serbia-Bulgaria: none identified

Serbia-Croatia: Serbia and Croatia dispute their border along the Danube; Serbia claims the border is the median between the current Danube shorelines, with the land to the eastern side of the median belonging to Serbia; Croatia contends that the boundary is demarcated according to historic maps, despite the river having meandered since then

Serbia-Hungary: none identified

Serbia-Kosovo: Serbia has not recognized Kosovo's independence, and Belgrade continues to claim it as its territory; the 2013 Brussels Agreement launched a process of EU-facilitated normalization between Serbia and Kosovo process, a prerequisite for their EU accession; in February and March 2023, both the two countries accepted the Agreement on the Path to Normalization and its Implementation Annex, whose implementation remains incomplete

Serbia-Montenegro: the former republic boundary serves as the boundary until a line is formally delimited and demarcated

Serbia-North Macedonia: none identified

Serbia-Romania: none identified


highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m

mean elevation: 442 m

Current health expenditure

8.7% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Serbian military is responsible for defense and deterrence against external threats, supporting international peacekeeping operations, and providing support to civil authorities for internal security; specific threat concerns of the military include extremism, separatism, and deepening international recognition of Kosovo; Serbia has cooperated with NATO since 2006, when it joined the Partnership for Peace program, and the military trains with NATO countries, particularly other Balkan states; Serbia has participated in EU peacekeeping missions, as well as missions under the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the UN; it also maintains close security ties with Russia and has a growing security relationship with China

the modern Serbian military was established in 2006 but traces its origins back through World War II, World War I, the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, and the Bulgarian-Serb War of 1885 to the First (1804-1813) and Second (1815-1817) Uprisings against the Ottoman Empire; the military’s combat forces are organized into Army and Air and Defense commands under a General Staff, as well as some independent forces; the Army’s combat forces include four combined arms brigades and an artillery brigade, plus several independent battalions and a river flotilla; there are also independent brigades of parachute infantry, special operations, and security/guard forces, which are directly under the General Staff; the Air and Air Defense force is organized into brigades and squadrons of aircraft, air defense missiles, and early warning and surveillance; its combat aircraft include approximately 25 Russian- and Yugoslavian-made multirole and attack aircraft, as well as a force of attack and multirole helicopters (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 25,000 active-duty troops (15,000 Land Forces; 5,000 Air/Air Defense; 5,000 other); approximately 3,000 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of domestically produced equipment and weapons systems, as well as Russian, Yugoslav, and Soviet-era weapons systems; in recent years, China and Russia have been the largest suppliers of arms to Serbia (2023)

Military deployments

180 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2024)

note: Serbia also has small numbers of troops deployed on other UN, as well as a few EU, missions

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 680 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3.99 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 660 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.84 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 13,984 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 0.8% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 25.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 21.74 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.22 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.96 megatons (2020 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunav (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Stari Ras and Sopoćani; Studenica Monastery; Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius; Stećci Medieval Tombstone Graveyards

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 1.2%

women married by age 18: 5.5% (2019 est.)


production: 39.673 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 40.83 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 72,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 987,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 7.514 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 69.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 2.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 27.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 455.787 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 2,619,191,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 1,980,647,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 48.139 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 15,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 79,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 53,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 77.5 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.71 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

60.8% (2023 est.)


8.81% of GDP (2022 est.)
7.29% of GDP (2021 est.)
7.25% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Djerdap (2023)

Labor force

3.373 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 30.4% (2021 est.)

male: 28.5%

female: 33.7%

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 43.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 42.2 years

female: 45.2 years

Debt - external

$30.927 billion (2019 est.)
$30.618 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$20.68 billion (2022 est.)
$18.617 billion (2021 est.)
$16.587 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


587 km (2009) (primarily on the Danube and Sava Rivers)

Refined petroleum products - imports

18,720 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

62.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
73.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2023 est.)
2.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
2% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

Unemployment rate

8.68% (2022 est.)
10.06% (2021 est.)
9.01% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


6,693,375 (2023 est.)

note: does not include the population of Kosovo

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 5.589 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

47.735 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 32.686 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 10.17 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.878 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 77,474 sq km

land: 77,474 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

20.61% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$139.193 billion (2022 est.)
$135.732 billion (2021 est.)
$125.997 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 45,022 km (2022)


43 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 8,621,147 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 124 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

35 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.98% (2022 est.)
4.09% (2021 est.)
1.58% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

15,750 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$4.457 billion (2022 est.)
-$2.654 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.177 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$20,900 (2022 est.)
$19,900 (2021 est.)
$18,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,730,496 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 39.8% (2020 est.)

male: 40.5% (2020 est.)

female: 39.1% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.5% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

98.195 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

15.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

8.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 8.986 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 29,933,262,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.943 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 5.002 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.332 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1% (2019)


$47.395 billion (2022 est.)
$39.476 billion (2021 est.)
$30.177 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$39.905 billion (2022 est.)
$34.035 billion (2021 est.)
$25.5 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2,538,727 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

74,350 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.22 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.5 years

female: 77.9 years

Real GDP growth rate

2.55% (2022 est.)
7.73% (2021 est.)
-0.9% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

-0.06% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 3,333 km (2020) 1,274 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 9.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 41.1% (2017 est.)

services: 49.1% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.38% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.25% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.63% (2023 est.)