Sweden - SE - SWE - SWE - Europe

Last updated: April 16, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Erik D. RAMANATHAN (since 20 January 2022)

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm

mailing address: 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC  20521-5750

telephone: [46] (08) 783-53-00

FAX: [46] (08) 661-19-64

email address and website:


Age structure

0-14 years: 17.26% (male 936,274/female 882,347)

15-64 years: 62.05% (male 3,346,891/female 3,190,608)

65 years and over: 20.69% (2023 est.) (male 1,021,707/female 1,158,511)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Sweden. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 15 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


11 (2024)

Natural hazards

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Area - comparative

almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Area comparison map

almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California

Military service age and obligation

18-47 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; service obligation: 7-15 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in January 2018; conscription is selective, includes both men and women (age 18), and requires 6-15 months of service (2024)

note 1: Sweden conscripts about 5,500 men and women each year; it plans to increase this number to 8,000 by 2025

note 2: as of 2023, women made over 20% of the military's personnel

note 3: conscientious objectors in Sweden have the right to apply for alternative service (called vapenfri tjänst); after completing alternative service, the conscript then belongs to the civilian reserve


A military power during the 17th century, Sweden maintained a policy of military non-alignment until it applied to join NATO in May 2022. Stockholm preserved and armed neutrality in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 20% in 2021.


Environment - current issues

marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

16% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, lumber, iron, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Exports - partners

Germany 10%, Norway 9%, United States 8%, Denmark 8%, Finland 6% (2021)

Administrative divisions

21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, sugar beets, barley, potatoes, oats, rapeseed, pork, rye, triticale

Military and security forces

Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten or "the Defense Force"): Army, Navy, Air Force, Home Guard (2024)


revenues: $259.17 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $256.454 billion (2019 est.)


name: Stockholm

geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: stock and holm literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, computers (2021)


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north


3,218 km


history: Sweden has four fundamental laws which together make up the Constitution: The Instrument of Government (several previous; latest 1974); The Act of Succession (enacted 1810; changed in 1937 and 1980); The Freedom of the Press Act (many previous; latest in 1949); The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (adopted 1991)

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; the results of such a referendum are only binding if a majority vote against the proposal; there has not been a referendum on constitutional matters; The Instrument of Government - amended several times, last in 2018; The Act of Succession - changed in 1937, 1980; The Freedom of the Press Act - amended several times, last in 2019; The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression - amended several times, last in 2023

Exchange rates

Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
10.114 (2022 est.)
8.577 (2021 est.)
9.21 (2020 est.)
9.458 (2019 est.)
8.693 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Ulf KRISTERSSON (since 18 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Ebba BUSCH (since 18 October 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field


6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)


iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents

Land boundaries

total: 2,211 km

border countries (2): Finland 545 km; Norway 1,666 km

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 68.7% (2018 est.)

other: 23.8% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by open party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2022 (next to beheld on 13 September 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party - S/SAP 30.3%, M 19.1%, SD 20.5%, C 6.7%, V 6.7%, KD 5.3%, L 4.6%, MP 5.1%, other 1.7%; seats by party - S/SAP 107, M 68, SD 73, C 24, V 24, KD 19, L 16, MP 18; composition as of mid-2022 - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNSOM, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day


noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Natural resources

iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Geography - note

strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe

Economic overview

high-income, knowledge-based economy; EU member but non-euro user (refuses to peg krona to euro); large welfare state that complements its free-market capitalism; high living standards, environmental protections, income and gender equality; rebounding well from COVID-19 disruptions


1626 km gas (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Muharrem DEMIROK]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba BUSCH]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Marta STEVENI and Daniel HELLDEN]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Nooshi DADGOSTAR]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or S/SAP [Magdalena ANDERSSON]
The Liberals (Liberalerna) or L [Johan PEHRSON]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby

LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Sweden’s telecom market includes mature mobile and broadband sectors which have been stimulated by the progressive investment of the main telcos in developing new technologies; the country retains one of the best developed LTE infrastructures in the region, while its MNOs have benefited from the January 2021 auction of spectrum in the 3.5GHz band which will enable them to expand services nationally; the country also has one of the highest fiber broadband penetration rates in Europe; the focus of FttP is aimed at fulfilling the government’s target of providing a 1Gb/s service to 98% of the population by 2025; the methodology to achieve this has rested on regulatory measures supported by public funds, as well as on the auction of spectrum in different bands; in the fixed-line broadband segment, the number of DSL subscribers is falling steadily as customers continue to migrate to fiber networks; there is also competition from HFC infrastructure, offering fiber-based broadband and investing in services based on the DOCSIS3.1 standard; this report assesses key aspects of the Swedish telecom market, providing data on fixed network services and profiling the main players; it also reviews the key regulatory issues, including interconnection, local loop unbundling, number portability, carrier preselection and NGN open access; the report also analyses the mobile market, providing data on network operators and their strategies in a highly competitive environment; in addition, the report considers the fixed and fixed-wireless broadband markets, including analyses of market dynamics and the main operators, as well as providing subscriber forecasts (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 12 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 125 per 100 (2022)

international: country code - 46; landing points for Botina, SFL, SFS-4, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, Eastern Light, Sweden-Latvia, BCS North-Phase1, EE-S1, LV-SE1, BCS East-West Interlink, NordBalt, Baltica, Denmark-Sweden-15,-17,-18, Scandinavian Ring -North,-South, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Donica North, Kattegate-1,-2, Energinet Laeso-Varberg and GC2 submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2019)


mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige

etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Map references


Irrigated land

519 sq km (2013)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Urban AHLIN (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600

FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: New York

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 113,213 (Syria), 26,857 (Afghanistan), 25,849 (Eritrea), 10,464 (Iraq), 9,315 (Somalia), 7,146 (Iran) (mid-year 2022); 43,710 (Ukraine) (as of 28 February 2024)

stateless persons: 46,515 (2022); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia

GDP (official exchange rate)

$591.189 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (2004)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2004)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

174 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years

male: 18 years

female: 21 years (2020)


urban population: 88.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 99.7% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 0.3% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)

lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Sweden. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.700 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

7.09 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.7 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.8

youth dependency ratio: 28.5

elderly dependency ratio: 32.3

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Population distribution

most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 316

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Swedish 79.6%, Syrian 1.9%, Iraqi 1.4%, Finnish 1.3%, other 15.8%

(2022 est.)

note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000


Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 53.9%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.9%, none or unspecified 37.2% (2021 est.)

note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members) and the Church of Sweden


Swedish (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, den obestridliga källan för grundläggande information. (Swedish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
Swedish audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 18%, Netherlands 9%, Norway 8%, China 7%, Denmark 7% (2021)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Kebnekaise South 2,100 m

lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m

mean elevation: 320 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

70.3% (2017)

note: percent of women aged 16-49

Current health expenditure

11.4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Swedish military is responsible for the defense of the country and its territories against armed attack, supporting Sweden’s national security interests, providing societal support, such as humanitarian aid, and contributing to international peacekeeping and peacemaking operations; it has a relatively small active duty force that is designed to be rapidly mobilized in a crisis; it is equipped with modern, mostly Swedish-made weapons, exercises regularly, and is backed up by a trained reserve and a Home Guard; the military’s main focus is maintaining itself as a credible and visible deterrent through training and exercises, sustaining high levels of readiness, cooperating and collaborating with both domestic and foreign partners

Sweden maintained a policy of military non-alignment for over 200 years before applying for NATO membership in May 2022 following Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine; it became a NATO member in March of 2024; before then, Stockholm joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and contributed to NATO-led missions, including those in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo; the military cooperates closely with the forces of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO; established 2009), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; Sweden is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) and contributes to CSDP missions and operations, including EU battlegroups; it also participates in UN-led missions; Sweden has close bilateral security relations with some NATO member states, particularly Finland, the UK, and the US

the military is headed by the Supreme Commander, who leads and supervises the force through Armed Forces Headquarters, which is the highest level of command and control of the military; the Army’s principal active combat arms units are more than a dozen battalions of armor, artillery, reconnaissance, security, and infantry forces, which include airborne/rangers, light, mechanized, and motorized infantry; in a crisis, the battalions would be filled out by reservists and formed into battlegroups/task forces and brigades; they are backed up by 40 Home Guard battalions comprised of locally based rapid-response units with mostly part-time but experienced soldiers; the Navy is organized into flotillas and an amphibious/naval infantry battalion; its principal warships are seven corvettes and four attack submarines; other combat vessels include patrol boats, fast attack craft, and minesweepers; all of the Navy’s warships are produced by Sweden; the Swedish Air Force has about 70 Swedish-made multirole fighter aircraft organized into wings with an additional 60 on order; the military also has a joint service special operations group directly under the Supreme Commander (2024)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Military and security service personnel strengths

the SAF has about 25,000 active-duty personnel: approximately 14,000 continuous service/full-time and approximately 11,000 temporary service; approximately 21,000 Home Guard (some on active duty) (2023)

note 1: SAF personnel are divided into continuously serving (full-time) and temporary service troops (part-timers who serve periodically and have another main employer or attend school); additional personnel have signed service agreements with the SAF and mostly serve in the Home Guard; the SAF also has about 9,000 civilian employees

note 2: in 2021, Sweden announced plans that increase the total size of the armed forces to about 100,000 personnel by 2030

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SAF's inventory is comprised of domestically produced and imported Western weapons systems; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of military hardware to Sweden; Sweden has a large and sophisticated defense industry that produces a range of air, land, and naval systems (2023)

Military deployments

the Swedish military has small numbers of personnel deployed on multiple EU-, NATO-, and UN-led missions (2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 700 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.27 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 100 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.377 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,416,835 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 32.4% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 12.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 3.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 5.96 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 43.25 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.42 megatons (2020 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Vanern - 5,580 sq km; Vattern - 1,910 sq km; Malaren - 1,140 sq km

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 15 (13 cultural, 1 natural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Royal Domain of Drottningholm (c); Laponian Area (m); High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago (n); Birka and Hovgården (c); Hanseatic Town of Visby (c); Church Town of Gammelstad, Luleå (c); Naval Port of Karlskrona (c); Rock Carvings in Tanum (c); Engelsberg Ironworks (c); Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun (c)


production: 1.07 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.328 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 24,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.144 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 1 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 29.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 17.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 44.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 1,275,785,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 34.886 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 1,310,671,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 10,600 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 295,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 403,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.8 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

53.4% (2023 est.)


0.56% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.49% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.57% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 6 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 6.94GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 30.8% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 34% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 4

Demographic profile

Sweden, the largest Nordic country in terms of size and population, is also Europe’s most sparsely populated.  Most Swedish men and women agree that both partners should contribute to household income. Swedish society is very gender equal, which is reflected in the country’s public policies.  A generous leave policy and high-quality subsidized childcare allows mothers and fathers to balance work and family life. Sweden’s income-replacement-based parental leave policy encourages women to establish themselves in the workforce before having children.  In fact, Swedish women have one of the highest labor participation rates in Europe and one of its highest total fertility rates (TFR), the number of children women have in their lifetime.  Postponement of parenthood has increased steadily.  Since the late 1960s, marriage and divorce rates have declined, while non-marital cohabitation and births out of wedlock have increased rapidly. Sweden’s TFR has hovered for decades around 2, which is close to replacement level and among Europe’s highest.

Sweden experienced “the great emigration” between 1850 and the 1930s when, faced with famines, approximately 1.5 million Swedes sought a better life in the Americas and Australia.  However, since World War II, Sweden has been a country of immigration. During World War II, thousands of refugees from neighboring countries worked in Swedish factories, agriculture, and forestry, replacing Swedish men who were called up for military service.  During the 1950s and 1960s, Sweden joined the Geneva Convention and granted permanent residence to refugees from the USSR and the Warsaw Pact countries. During this period, Sweden also welcomed labor migrants, mainly from Finland and other Nordic countries, who bolstered the tax base needed to fund the country’s welfare programs.

Until 1971, labor migrants, particularly from Finland, southern Europe (including then Yugoslavia, Italy, and Greece) the Baltics, and Turkey, came to Sweden as its industries flourished.  Companies recruited many of the workers, but others came on their own. Sweden’s labor demand eventually decreased, and the job market became saturated. The government restricted the flow of labor migrants, putting an end to labor migration from non-Nordic countries in 1972. From then until the 1990s, inflows consisted largely of asylum seekers from the Middle East, the Balkans, and South America, as well as persons looking to reunite with family members already in Sweden.  The country began a new era of labor immigration in 2008, as companies were encouraged to hire non-EU workers.  Among the largest source countries have been India, Thailand, and China. As of 2020, over a quarter of Sweden’s population had a migrant background.

Space program overview

member of the European Space Agency (ESA) and program is integrated within the framework of the ESA; produces and operates satellites; builds and launches sounding rockets; involved in the research, development, production, and operations of a wide variety of other space-related areas and capabilities, including astronomy, atmospheric monitoring, geographic information systems, infrared imaging, meteorology, propulsion systems, remote sensing, satellite subsystems, spacecraft systems and structures, space physics, scientific research, stratospheric balloons, and telecommunications; conducts extensive bilateral and multilateral international cooperation, in particular through the ESA and EU and their member states, as well as with the US; has a robust commercial space industry with more than 30 companies involved in a broad range of space-related capabilities (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space launch site(s)

Esrange Space Center (Kiruna); Esrange is slated to become a new European launch site for small satellites in 2023; Esrange also accommodates one of the world’s largest civilian satellite ground stations and acts as a hub for Sweden’s satellite station network (2023)

Space agency/agencies

Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA; established 1972; known until 2018 as the Swedish National Space Board) (2023)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Platåbergens (2023)

Labor force

5.724 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 24.5% (2021 est.)

male: 26.1%

female: 23%

Net migration rate

3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 41 years (2023 est.)

male: 40 years

female: 42 years

Debt - external

$911.317 billion (2019 est.)
$1,012,171,000,000 (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$64.289 billion (2022 est.)
$62.053 billion (2021 est.)
$58.26 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


2,052 km (2010)

Refined petroleum products - imports

229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

40.48% of GDP (2021 est.)
43.99% of GDP (2020 est.)
38.67% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

Total fertility rate

1.67 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2022)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.2% of GDP (2020)
1.1% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

7.39% (2022 est.)
8.72% (2021 est.)
8.29% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


10,536,338 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 8.8 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 88% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

48.144 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 7.38 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 38.406 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 2.359 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 450,295 sq km

land: 410,335 sq km

water: 39,960 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

27.21% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$580.099 billion (2022 est.)
$564.124 billion (2021 est.)
$531.455 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 197,964 km (2022)


203 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 13,194,189 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2022 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

28.9 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

8.37% (2022 est.)
2.16% (2021 est.)
0.5% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

$28.491 billion (2022 est.)
$43.475 billion (2021 est.)
$32.355 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$55,300 (2022 est.)
$54,200 (2021 est.)
$51,300 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 4,179,574 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 24% (2020 est.)

male: 29.8% (2020 est.)

female: 18.2% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.6% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

210.882 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 43.499 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 124.609 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 36.824 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 11.827 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 10.434 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 361 (2023)

by type: general cargo 44, oil tanker 18, other 299

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$296.552 billion (2022 est.)
$268.334 billion (2021 est.)
$217.165 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$314.019 billion (2022 est.)
$299.365 billion (2021 est.)
$241.94 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,261,073 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 7.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 81.1 years

female: 84.7 years

Real GDP growth rate

2.83% (2022 est.)
6.15% (2021 est.)
-2.17% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

2.1% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 10,910 km (2020) 8,184 km electrified

narrow gauge: 65 km

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 33% (2017 est.)

services: 65.4% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.21% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.51% (2023 est.)