Slovakia - SK - SVK - SVK - Europe

Last updated: February 22, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Gautam A. RANA (since 28 September 2022)

embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

mailing address: 5840 Bratislava Place, Washington DC  20521-5840

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861

email address and website:
consulbratislava@state.gov

https://sk.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.87% (male 415,224/female 391,397)

15-64 years: 66.49% (male 1,811,919/female 1,795,499)

65 years and over: 18.64% (2023 est.) (male 404,979/female 606,301)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Slovakia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

48 40 N, 19 30 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Heliports

2 (2024)

Natural hazards

flooding

Area - comparative

about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire
Area comparison map

about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire


Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2004 (2023)

note: as of 2020, women made up around 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Background

Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

Environment - current issues

air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Population below poverty line

11.9% (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, video displays, broadcasting equipment, tires, refined petroleum (2019)

Exports - partners

Germany 22%, Czechia 11%, Poland 7%, France 7%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banska Bystrica, Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Presov, Trencin, Trnava, Zilina

Agricultural products

wheat, maize, sugar beets, milk, barley, rapeseed, potatoes, sunflower seeds, soybeans, pork

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Slovenské Pozemné Sily), Air Forces (Slovenské Vzdušné Sily), Special Operations Forces (Sily Pre Speciálne Operácie)

Ministry of Interior: Slovak Police Force (SPF or Policajný Zbor) (2024)

note: the SPF has sole responsibility for internal and border security

Budget

revenues: $43.495 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $44.914 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke BRETISLAV I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words brat (brother) and slava (glory)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum, natural gas, insulated wiring (2019)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Constitution

history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2020

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of MDMA (ecstasy)

Independence

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

Industries

automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;

Land boundaries

total: 1,587 km

border countries (5): Austria 105 km; Czechia 241 km; Hungary 627 km; Poland 517 km; Ukraine 97 km

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)

other: 19.7% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 September 2023 (next to be held in February 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - SMER-SSD 23%, PS 18%, Hlas-SD 14.7%, OL'aNO 8.9%, KDH 6.8%, SaS 6.3%, SNS 5.6%; seats by party SMER-SSD 42, PS 32, Hlas-SD 27, OL'aNO 16, KDH 12, SaS 11, 10

composition (as of April 2023) - men 117, women 33, percent of women 22%

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Nationality

noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Natural resources

lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Geography - note

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; major electronics and automobile exporter; new anticorruption and judiciary reforms; low unemployment; low regional innovation; strong financial sector

Pipelines

2,270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6,278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27,023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015) (2016)

Political parties and leaders

Alliance-Szovetseg or A-S [Krisztian FORRO]
Christian Union or KÚ [Anna ZABORSKA]
Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL]
Democrats [Eduard HEGER]
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SSD [Robert FICO]
For the People or Za Ludi [Veronika REMISOVA]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Life National Party or Život–NS [Tomáš TARABA] (formerly Christian Democracy - Life and Prosperity - Alliance for Slovkia)
New Majority or NOVA [Gábor GRENDEL]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Progressive Slovakia or PS [Michal SIMECKA]
Republic [Milan UHRIK]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Voice - Social Democracy or Hlas-SD [Petr PELLIGRINI]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR] (formerly Party of Citizens of Slovakia)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the broadband market has shown steady growth in recent years; fiber has become the principal platform for fixed broadband services, followed by DSL; the cable sector is a distant third in terms of subscribers, though cable is particularly strong in urban areas; mobile broadband access and content services are developing rapidly in line with operators having upgraded their networks; the regulator prepared the groundwork for 5G services in line with European Union requirements, with concessions in the 3.5GHz range followed by those in the 700MHz, 900MHz and 1800MHz bands; 5G was launched in late 2021 and is expected to cover about a fifth of the population by the end of 2022 (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 135 per 100 teledensity (2021)

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)

Terrain

rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska republika

local short form: Slovensko

etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word "Slavus" (Slav), which had the local form "Sloven", used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants

Location

Central Europe, south of Poland

Map references

Europe

Irrigated land

211 sq km (2015)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Radovan JAVORCIK (since 18 January 2021)

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438

email address and website:
emb.washington@mzv.sk

https://www.mzv.sk/web/washington-en

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Internet country code

.sk

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 114,270 (Ukraine) (as of 14 January 2024)

stateless persons: 2,940 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$105.388 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2020)

Moody's rating: A2 (2012)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

50.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 54% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)

lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku" (She was digging a well)
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Slovakia. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

441,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.57 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

5.7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.2 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.5

youth dependency ratio: 23.7

elderly dependency ratio: 25.8

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

OM

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Slovak 83.8%, Hungarian 7.8%, Romani 1.2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 5.4% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population

Religions

Roman Catholic 55.8%, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession 5.3%, Greek Catholic 4%, Reformed Christian 1.6%, other 3%, none 23.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2021 est.)

Languages

Slovak (official) 81.8%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 1.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetova Kniha Faktov, nenahraditelny zdroj zakladnej informacie. (Slovak)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Slovakian audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 18%, Czechia 18%, Poland 8%, Hungary 7%, Russia 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

none identified

Elevation

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

mean elevation: 458 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

7.2% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Slovak military was created from the Czechoslovak Army after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in January 1993; it is a small and professional force responsible for external defense and fulfilling Slovakia’s commitments to European and international security; Slovakia has been a member of both the EU and NATO since 2004; a key focus of the Slovak military is fulfilling the country’s security responsibilities to NATO, including modernizing and acquiring NATO-compatible equipment, participating in training exercises, and providing forces for security missions such as NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence in the Baltic States; since 2022, Slovakia has hosted a NATO ground force battlegroup comprised of troops from Czechia, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the US as part of the NATO effort to boost the defenses of Eastern Europe since the Russian invasion of Ukraine; Slovakia also contributes to EU and UN peacekeeping missions

the military operates under a General Staff and a Joint Operations Command; the combat units of the subordinate Land Forces are two mechanized infantry brigades, plus separate battalions of artillery and reconnaissance forces; the separate Special Operations Forces include special forces and airborne units; the Air Force has only a handful of fighter aircraft and is assisted by NATO’s air policing mission over Slovakia, which includes fighter aircraft from Czechia and Poland; in 2022, Slovakia signed a defense agreement with the US that allows the US to use two Slovak military air bases; as a landlocked country, Slovakia does not have a naval force (2023)

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 14,000 active-duty personnel (8,000 Land Forces; 4,000 Air Forces; 2,000 other, including staff, special operations, and support forces) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists mostly of Soviet-era platforms; in recent years, it has imported limited quantities of more modern equipment, particularly from Italy and the US (2023)

Military deployments

240 Cyprus (UNFICYP); up to 150 Latvia (NATO) (2023)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovakia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 290 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 230 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.784 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 135,941 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7.6% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 18.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 32.42 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.43 megatons (2020 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunaj (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 8 (6 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica (c); Levoča, Spišský Hrad, and the Associated Cultural Monuments (c); Vlkolínec (c); Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (n); Bardejov Town (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Wooden Churches of the Slovak Carpathians (c); Frontiers of the Roman Empire - The Danube Limes (Western Segment) (c)

Coal

production: 2.148 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 5.371 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 3.111 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 135 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 19.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 16.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 62.495 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.928 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 4.361 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 14.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 3,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 85,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 109,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.77 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

47.9% (2023 est.)

Remittances

1.92% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.31% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.41% of GDP (2019 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 5 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 1

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 2.31GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 52.3% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 70.4% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 1

Space program overview

focused on the development of satellites, satellite subcomponents, and other space-related technologies; as a member state of the EU, it is actively involved in all key components of the EU space program, and Slovak researchers actively participate in a variety of EU and/or European Space Agency (ESA) space missions including the Galileo global navigational system program, Copernicus Earth observation satellite program, Rosetta comet probe, BepiColombo (Mercury planetary orbiter), and Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission; has more than 40 established companies actively involved in the space sector (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

no national government agency; the Slovak Space Office is responsible for inter-ministerial political coordination and multilateral international cooperation; it serves as the official national contact point for international cooperation between space agencies, offices, associations, businesses, and research entities, and is part of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport (2023)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 1

global geoparks and regional networks: Novohrad-Nógrád (includes Hungary) (2023)

Labor force

2.766 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 21.5% (2021 est.)

male: 19.6%

female: 24.6%

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 42.5 years (2023 est.)

male: 41 years

female: 44.1 years

Debt - external

$115.853 billion (2019 est.)
$114.224 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$9.61 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$9.344 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$7.169 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Waterways

172 km (2012) (on Danube River)

Refined petroleum products - imports

38,340 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

77.36% of GDP (2020 est.)
61.99% of GDP (2019 est.)
62.29% of GDP (2018 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
1.9% of GDP (2020)
1.7% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

6.74% (2021 est.)
6.69% (2020 est.)
5.75% (2019 est.)

Population

5,425,319 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 4.806 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

32.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 11.521 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 11.747 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 9.238 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 49,035 sq km

land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

18.5% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$173.582 billion (2021 est.)
$168.503 billion (2020 est.)
$174.388 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 45,106 km (2022)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,445,151 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2022 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

23.2 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.15% (2021 est.)
1.94% (2020 est.)
2.66% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

81,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.875 billion (2021 est.)
$671.914 million (2020 est.)
-$3.532 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$31,900 (2021 est.)
$30,900 (2020 est.)
$32,000 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,701,561 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 31.5% (2020 est.)

male: 37.4% (2020 est.)

female: 25.6% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.5% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

129.665 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 7.868 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 26.503 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 12.97 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 13.288 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.589 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$107.358 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$88.214 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.755 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$107.43 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$90.546 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.859 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 540,558 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2022 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

131,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 73.1 years

female: 80.4 years

Real GDP growth rate

3.01% (2021 est.)
-3.37% (2020 est.)
2.52% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

2.46% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 3,627 km (2020) 1,585 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 35% (2017 est.)

services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.22% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.13% (2023 est.)

Airports

114 (2024)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 25 October 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK, Denisa SAKOVA, Tomas TARABA, and Peter KMEC (all since 25 October 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held on 23 March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council

election results:
2019:
Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%