Senegal - SN - SEN - SEN - Africa

Last updated: March 13, 2024
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Senegal Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RAYNOR (since 10 March 2022); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau

embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar

mailing address: 2130 Dakar Place, Washington D.C.  20521-2130

telephone: [221] 33-879-4000

email address and website:
DakarACS@state.gov

https://sn.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.19% (male 3,858,937/female 3,714,062)

15-64 years: 55.46% (male 4,925,324/female 5,271,627)

65 years and over: 3.34% (2023 est.) (male 266,485/female 348,225)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Senegal. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

14 00 N, 14 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana


Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 20 years of age for selective compulsory service for men and possibly women; 24-month service obligation (2023)

Background

Senegal is one of the few countries in the world with evidence of continuous human life from the Paleolithic period to present. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, the Jolof Empire ruled most of Senegal. Starting in the 15th century, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain traded along the Senegalese coast. Senegal’s location on the western tip of Africa made it a favorable base for the European slave trade. European powers used the Senegalese island of Goree as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland, and at the height of the slave trade in Senegal, over one-third of the Senegalese population was enslaved. In 1815, France abolished slavery and began expanding inland. During the second half of the 19th century, France took possession of Senegal as a French colony. In 1959, the French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. In 1982, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union dissolved in 1989.

Since the 1980s, the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance - a separatist movement based in southern Senegal - has led a low-level insurgency. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed. Since 2012, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect. Senegal is one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. The Socialist Party of Senegal ruled for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000 and re-elected in 2007. WADE amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. In 2012, WADE’s decision to run for a third presidential term sparked public backlash that led to his defeat to current President Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum limited future presidents to two consecutive five-year terms. SALL announced in July 2023 that he would not seek another term in office, and will conclude his tenure in April 2024. 

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

46.7% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)

Exports - commodities

gold, refined petroleum, phosphoric acid, fish, ground nuts (2019)

Exports - partners

Mali 22%, Switzerland 14%, India 9%, China 7% (2019)

Administrative divisions

14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kéedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Agricultural products

groundnuts, watermelons, rice, sugar cane, cassava, millet, maize, onions, sorghum, vegetables

Military and security forces

Senegalese Armed Forces (les Forces Armées Sénégalaises, FAS): Army (l’Armée de Terre, AT), Senegalese National Navy (Marine Séenéegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (l'Arméee de l'Air du Séenéegal, AAS), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components)

Ministry of Interior: National Police (2024)

note: the National Police operates in major cities, while the Gendarmerie under the FAS primarily operates outside urban areas; both services have specialized anti-terrorism units

Budget

revenues: $4.76 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $5.662 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Dakar

geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, D.C., during Standard Time)

etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, rice, cars, malt extract, clothing and apparel (2019)

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Coastline

531 km

Constitution

history: previous 1959 (pre-independence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)
580.657 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Sidiki KABA (since 9 March 2024); note - on 6 March 2024, President Macky SALL dismissed Prime Minister Amadou BA and the cabinet and appointed Sidiki KABA to be prime minister and form a new cabinet

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single, renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held on 24 March 2024)

election results:
2019: Macky SALL reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%, other 5.5%

2012: Macky SALL elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Macky SALL (APR) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2% 


Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

Illicit drugs

a transit point on the cocaine route from South America to Europe; large production of cannabis in southern Casamance region; the high domestic use of cannabis, ecstasy, and to a lesser extent crack cocaine


Independence

4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

Industries

agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Suprême  (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel  (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court

Land boundaries

total: 2,684 km

border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km; Guinea 363 km; Guinea-Bissau 341 km; Mali 489 km; Mauritania 742 km

Land use

agricultural land: 46.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 17.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 29.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2018 est.)

other: 9.4% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Council

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 112 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in a single nationwide constituency; member term is 5-years)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 31 July 2022 (next scheduled to be held in July 2027)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBY 46.6%, YAW 32.9%, WS 14.5%, other 6%;  seats by party/coalition - BBY 82, YAW 42, WS 24, other 17; composition - men 92, women 73, percent of women 44%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 56.3%

male: 68.4%

female: 45.4% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Nationality

noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese

Natural resources

fish, phosphates, iron ore

Geography - note

westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

Economic overview

lower middle-income, services-driven West African economy; key mining, construction, agriculture, and fishing industries; tourism and exports hit hard by COVID-19; large informal economy; developing offshore oil and gas fields; systemic corruption

Pipelines

43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Citizenship and Work or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
AND (National Alliance for Democracy) [Aissatou MBODJ]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]
ARC (Alternative for the next generation of citizens) [Anta Babacar NGOM] 
Awalé [Abdourahmane DIOUF] 
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [vacant] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Coalition Mimi 2024 [Aminata TOURE]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Democratic Renaissance Congress [NA]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BCG [Jean-Paul DIAS MENDES ]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Gueum sa Bopp (Believe in yourself) [Bougane Dany GUEYE]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Maguette THIAM]
Jotna Coalition [Dr Abdoulaye NIANE]
Liberate the People (Yewwi Askan Wi) or YAW [Ousmane SONKO, Déthié FALL, Cheikh Tidiane YOUM]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Abdoul MBAYE]
Only Senegal Movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [Cheikh Mouhamadou Moustapha SY]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
PRP (Republican party for Progress) [Déthié FALL]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Save Senegal (Wallu Senegal Grand Coalition) or WS [Karim WADE] (coalition includes PDS, Jotna Coalition, Democratic Renaissance Congress)
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Karim WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [vacant]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
Réewum Ngor (Republic of Values) [Thierno Alassane SALL]
Servants (Les Serviteurs) [Pape Djibril FALL]




Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Dakar

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Senegal’s telecom market continues to show steady growth in all sectors; this has been supported by the particular demands made on consumers during the pandemic, which resulted in a particularly strong increase in the number of subscribers; the mobile subscriber base increased 6.7% in 2020, year-on-year, and by 4.1% in 2021, while the number of fixed broadband subscribers increased 17.5% year-on-year in 2021; mobile internet platforms account for the vast majority of all internet accesses; quality of service issues continue to plague the market, with the regulator periodically issuing fines to the market players (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 118 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Terrain

generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

conventional short form: Senegal

local long form: Republique du Sénégal 

local short form: Sénégal

former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation

etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Map references

Africa

Irrigated land

1,200 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mansour Elimane KANE (since 6 January 2020)

chancery: 2215 M ST NW, Washington, D.C. 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315; [1] (202) 629-2961

email address and website:
contact@ambasenegal-us.org

http://www.ambasenegal-us.org/index.php

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Internet country code

.sn

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,518 (Mauritania) (2023)

IDPs: 8,400 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$23.576 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2000)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

38.97 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 8 years

female: 10 years (2021)

Urbanization

urban population: 49.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

Senegal’s media environment includes over 25 private television stations, hundreds of radio stations, and more than 45 newspapers.  State-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts from five cities in Senegal and a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 95.9% of population

rural: 79.3% of population

total: 87.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.1% of population

rural: 20.7% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)

lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Senegal. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

3.340 million DAKAR (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.9 years (2019 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Demographic profile

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

 


Contraceptive prevalence rate

26.9% (2019)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 81.5

youth dependency ratio: 75.8

elderly dependency ratio: 5.7

potential support ratio: 17.4 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal

dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Population distribution

the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

population without electricity: 5 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 67.9% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 93.9% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 43.4% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,038 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 40,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

6V

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.1% of population

rural: 55.5% of population

total: 74.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population

rural: 44.5% of population

total: 25.9% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Wolof 39.7%, Pulaar 27.5%, Sereer 16%, Mandinka 4.9%, Jola 4.2%, Soninke 2.4%, other 5.4% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2019 est.)

Religions

Muslim 97.2% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 2.7% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2019 est.)

Languages

French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke

Imports - partners

China 17%, France 11%, Belgium 7%, Russia 7%, Netherlands 7% (2019)

Disputes - international

Senegal-Guinea-Bissau: rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau


Elevation

highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 69 m

Current health expenditure

5.2% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

despite limited resources, the FAS is considered to be a well-equipped, experienced, and effective military; it has a history of non-interference in the country’s political process and positive relations with civil authorities; the FAS is experienced in foreign deployments and has received assistance from the French military, which maintains a presence in Senegal, as well as Germany, Spain, the UK, and the US; the FAS’s primary focuses are border, internal, and maritime security; it is closely watching the prevalence of multiple active terrorist groups across the region and political instability in neighboring Mali and Guinea and has recently established new military and gendarmerie camps along its eastern border with Mali; the FAS also works with the government in areas such as preventive healthcare, infrastructure development, environmental protection, and disaster response

the Army is spread amongst seven military zones and organized into a mix of light infantry battalions and light armored reconnaissance squadrons, as well as airborne, special operations, and artillery battalions; the Gendarmerie includes mobile units, as well as the Presidential Guard (aka “The Red Guard”); the Navy is a small force of coastal patrol craft; in recent years it has acquired some modern platforms from France and Israel, including two offshore patrol vessels, to improve the Navy’s ability to patrol Senegal’s coastline and economic exclusion zone, conduct fisheries inspections, counter drug trafficking, and combat piracy; the Air Force is configured for supporting the ground forces and has a small number of light attack aircraft and helicopter gunships, as well as transport and reconnaissance aircraft

Senegalese security forces have been engaged in a low-level counterinsurgency campaign in the southern Casamance region against various factions of the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of the Casamance (MDFC) since 1982; the conflict is one of longest running low-level insurgencies in the World, having claimed more than 5,000 lives while leaving another 60,000 displaced; in May 2023, a faction of the MFDC agreed to a peace deal (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 27,000 active personnel (15,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 Air Force; 16,000 National Gendarmerie); 15,000 National Police (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAS inventory includes mostly older or secondhand equipment from a variety of countries, including France, South Africa, and Russia/former Soviet Union; in recent years, the FAS has undertaken a modernization program and has received small amounts of newer equipment from more than 10 countries, with France as the leading supplier (2023)

Military deployments

200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 800 (ECOWAS Military Intervention in The Gambia--ECOMIG); 500 (ECOWAS Stabilization Support Mission in Guinea-Bissau--EESMGB); note - Senegal also has up to 1,000 police deployed to UN peacekeeping missions in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)

(2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM)

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in cereal production and reduced incomes - according to the latest analysis, about 881,000 people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between June and August 2022, mostly on account of localized shortfalls in cereal production in 2021 and reduced incomes owing to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2022)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 260 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 58 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.76 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,454,059 tons (2016 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 38.21 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 10.9 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.74 megatons (2020 est.)

Major aquifers

Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Senegal (456,397 sq km)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Senegal (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, and Mauritania [m] ) - 1,641 km; Gambie (Gambia) (shared with Guinea [s] and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (5 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Island of Gorée (c); Niokolo-Koba National Park (n); Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (n); Island of Saint-Louis (c); Stone Circles of Senegambia (c); Saloum Delta (c); Bassari Country: Bassari, Fula, and Bedik Cultural Landscapes (c)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 8.8%

women married by age 18: 30.5%

men married by age 18: 0.7% (2019 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 894,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 894,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 84.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 60.003 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 60.003 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 57,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 20,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

2.03 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

65.3% (2023 est.)

Remittances

10.46% of GDP (2020 est.)
10.78% of GDP (2019 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Labor force

4.377 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 5% (2021 est.)

male: 3.5%

female: 7.5%

Net migration rate

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 19 years (2023 est.)

male: 18.2 years

female: 19.8 years

Debt - external

$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

261 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Waterways

1,000 km (2012) (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers)

Refined petroleum products - imports

32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.17 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.72% (2021 est.)
3.62% (2020 est.)
2.86% (2019 est.)

Population

18,384,660 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 9.86 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 58% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

10.696 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.955 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 8.64 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 101,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 196,722 sq km

land: 192,530 sq km

water: 4,192 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.38% (of GDP) (2018 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$58.991 billion (2021 est.)
$55.618 billion (2020 est.)
$54.89 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 16,665 km (2017)

paved: 6,126 km (2017) (includes 241 km of expressways)

unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)

Airports

19 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 20,854,830 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2022 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

38.1 (2018 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.55% (2020 est.)
1.76% (2019 est.)
0.46% (2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.215 billion (2018 est.)
-$1.526 billion (2017 est.)
-$795.648 million (2016 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$3,500 (2021 est.)
$3,400 (2020 est.)
$3,400 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 153,813 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 6.9% (2020 est.)

male: 13.1% (2020 est.)

female: 0.7% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

9.221 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

30.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.312 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,735,980,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 324 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 764 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 36 (2023)

by type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 1, other 30

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

14.4% (2019)

Imports

$8.96 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$7.499 billion (2017 est.)

Exports

$5.287 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.593 billion (2017 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 297,046 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2022 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.21 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 68.5 years

female: 72.1 years

Real GDP growth rate

6.06% (2021 est.)
1.33% (2020 est.)
4.61% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

10.91% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 906 km (2017) (713 km operational in 2017)

narrow gauge: 906 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)

services: 58.8% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

1.46% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

2.52% (2023 est.)