Trinidad and Tobago - TT - TTO - TTO - Central America and the Caribbean

Last updated: April 11, 2024
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Trinidad and Tobago Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Candace A. BOND (since 8 December 2022)

embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain

mailing address: 3410 Port of Spain Place, Washington DC  20521-3410

telephone: (868) 622-6371

FAX: (868) 822-5905

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.04% (male 136,733/female 131,316)

15-64 years: 67.4% (male 482,427/female 466,200)

65 years and over: 13.56% (2023 est.) (male 88,531/female 102,253)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Trinidad and Tobago. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 61 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Delaware
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than Delaware

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women (some age variations between services, reserves); no conscription (2023)

note: as of 2019, women comprised about 14% of the active duty military


First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The emancipation of enslaved people in 1834 disrupted the twin islands' sugar industry.  Contract workers arriving from India between 1845 and 1917 augmented the labor force, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export that remains the dominant economic industry. Trinidad and Tobago attained independence in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tobago has greater tourism potential but continues to recover from an 18-month travel ban imposed in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The government is struggling to reverse a surge in violent crime.

Environment - current issues

water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; widespread pollution of waterways and coastal areas; illegal dumping; deforestation; soil erosion; fisheries and wildlife depletion

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

20% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

ammonia, industrial alcohols, natural gas, crude petroleum, iron products, fertilizers, refined petroleum (2021)

Exports - partners

United States 37%, Guyana 6%, China 5%, Mexico 4%, Belgium 4% (2021)

Administrative divisions

9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward

regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco

borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin

cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando

ward: Tobago

Agricultural products

poultry, fruit, coconuts, citrus fruit, milk, plantains, maize, oranges, eggs, gourds

Military and security forces

Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Army/Land Forces (Trinidad and Tobago Regiment), Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves

Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) (2024)

note: the Ministry of National Security oversees both the TTDF and the TTPS


revenues: $4.939 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $7.528 billion (2020 est.)


name: Port of Spain

geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name dates to the period of Spanish colonial rule (16th to late 18th centuries) when the city was referred to as "Puerto de Espana"; the name was anglicized following the British capture of Trinidad in 1797

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron, excavation machinery, ships, cars (2021)


tropical; rainy season (June to December)


362 km


history: previous 1962; latest 1976

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions, such as human rights and freedoms or citizenship, requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses and assent of the president; passage of amendments, such as the powers and authorities of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, and the procedure for amending the constitution, requires at least three-quarters majority vote by the House membership, two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership, and assent of the president; amended many times, last in 2007

Exchange rates

Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
6.754 (2022 est.)
6.759 (2021 est.)
6.751 (2020 est.)
6.754 (2019 est.)
6.771 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Christine KANGALOO (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 January 2023 (next to be held by February 2028); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

election results:
2023: Christine KANGALOO elected president by the electoral college on 20 January 2023; electoral college vote  Christine KANGALOO (PNM) 48, Israel KHAN (UNC) 22

2018: Paula-Mae WEEKES (independent) elected president; ran unopposed and was elected without a vote; she was Trinidad and Tabago's first female head of state

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Flag description

red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side; the colors represent the elements of earth, water, and fire; black stands for the wealth of the land and the dedication of the people; white symbolizes the sea surrounding the islands, the purity of the country's aspirations, and equality; red symbolizes the warmth and energy of the sun, the vitality of the land, and the courage and friendliness of its people

Illicit drugs

a transit point for drugs destined for Europe, North America, and the rest of the Caribbean;  drug trafficking organizations use  the country’s proximity to Venezuela, its porous borders, vulnerabilities at ports of entry, a limited law enforcement capacity and resources, and corruption



31 August 1962 (from the UK)


petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges); note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges serve for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65

subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 10.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 1.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 44% (2018 est.)

other: 45.4% (2018 est.)

Legal system

English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;)
House of Representatives (42 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and the house speaker - usually designated from outside Parliament; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 28 August 2020 (next appointments in August 2025)
House of Representatives - last held on 10 August 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - PNM 16, UNC 6, Independent 9; composition as of February 2024 - men 19, women 13, percent of women 40.6%

House of Representatives - percent by party - NA; seats by party - PNM 23, UNC 19; composition as of February 2024 - men 30, women 12, percent of women 28.6%; note - overall Parliament percent of women 33.8%

note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly (19 seats; 15 assemblymen directly elected by simple majority vote and 4 appointed councilors - 3 on the advice of the chief secretary and 1 on the advice of the minority leader; members serve 4-year terms)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99.2%

female: 98.7% (2015)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin

measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 August (1962)


noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

note: Trinbagonian is used on occasion to describe a citizen of the country without specifying the island of origin

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Geography - note

Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

Economic overview

high-income Caribbean economy; major hydrocarbon exporter; key tourism and finance sectors; high inflation and growing public debt; long foreign currency access delays; large foreign reserves and sovereign wealth fund


257 km condensate, 11 km condensate/gas, 1,567 km gas, 587 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY]
United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
Tobago People’s Party or Tobago [Farley AUGUSTINE]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough

oil terminal(s): Galeota Point terminal

LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Fortin


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: excellent international service; good local service; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launch; regulatory development; major growth in mobile telephony and data segments which attacks operation investment in fiber infrastructure; moves to end roaming charges (2020)

domestic: fixed-line is 21 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity 131 per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 1-868; landing points for the EC Link, ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber, SG-SCS and Americas II submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2020)


mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

etymology: explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the larger island "La Isla de la Trinidad" (The Island of the Trinity) on 31 July 1498 on his third voyage; the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives of the smaller island or its elongated cigar shape may account for the "tobago" name, which is spelled "tobaco" in Spanish


Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony Wayne Jerome PHILLIPS-SPENCER, Brig. Gen. (Ret.) (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036-1975

telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$30.054 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Trinidad and Tobago does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; officials implemented new standard operating procedures for victim referral and care, opened a government-funded and operated shelter for female child victims, provided the first government shelters for adult victims; and increased the size of the Counter-Trafficking Unit; officials took steps to prevent trafficking among vulnerable populations, including migrants, Cuban medical workers, and Venezuelan refugees and migrants; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts, compared to the previous year, to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; courts have never convicted a trafficker under the 2011 anti-trafficking law, and corruption and complicity among officials, including at senior levels, inhibited law enforcement action; victim identification, referral, and services remained weak, and interagency coordination was poor; because the government has devoted significant resources to a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet the minimum standards, Trinidad and Tobago was granted a waiver per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3; therefore, Trinidad and Tobago remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2023)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Trinidad and Tobago, and also exploit victims from Trinidad and Tobago abroad; the country serves as a transit point for Venezuelan refugees and migrants en route to Europe, North Africa, and elsewhere in the Caribbean who are at high risk for trafficking; sex trafficking is the most prevalent form of trafficking in the country, victimizing women and girls primarily from Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Venezuela; however, the government reported an increase in male Venezuelan labor trafficking victims and domestic child sex trafficking victims; unaccompanied Venezuelan children are at risk for sex trafficking; Trinidad remains the primary hub for most sexual exploitation, but traffickers move some victims to Tobago during the tourist season; migrants from the Caribbean region and from Asia are at risk for forced labor in domestic service and the retail sector; traffickers also exploit victims from China, India, Kenya, Nepal, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia are at risk for forced labor in domestic service and the retail sector; LGBTQI+ persons are at risk for sex trafficking; Cuban medical professionals may have been forced to work in Trinidad and Tobago by the Cuban government; corruption by police, immigration and customs, and coast guard officials has been associated with facilitating labor and sex trafficking; transnational organized crime may increasingly be involved in trafficking; Trinidad and Tobago is a sex tourism destination, according to NGOs, and most sex tourists come from Canada, China, the US, and Western Europe (2023)

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba1 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

3.84 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


urban population: 53.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

6 free-to-air TV networks, 2 of which are state-owned; 24 subscription providers (cable and satellite); over 36 radio frequencies (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"

lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE

note: adopted 1962; song originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Trinidad and Tobago. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

545,000 PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

4.48 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad), cocrico (bird of Tobago), Chaconia flower; national colors: red, white, black

Contraceptive prevalence rate


GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 8.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.7

youth dependency ratio: 29.3

elderly dependency ratio: 16.8

potential support ratio: 7.4 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Population distribution

population on Trinidad is concentrated in the western half of the island, on Tobago in the southern half

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 19

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,525,130 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 41.14 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

East Indian 35.4%, African descent 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed - African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)


Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congregational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)


English (official), Trinidadian Creole English, Tobagonian Creole English, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Trinidadian Creole French, Spanish, Chinese

Imports - partners

United States 37%, China 9%, Mexico 6%, Brazil 5%, Canada 4% (2021)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 28,500 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2021)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 83 m

Current health expenditure

7.3% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Police Service maintains internal security; the TTDF's primary responsibilities are conducting border and maritime security, assisting civil authorities in times of crisis or disaster, providing search and rescue services, and supporting law enforcement, particularly in countering gang-related crime and trafficking of narcotics and other illicit goods; the Coast Guard is responsible for maritime border security in places with no official ports of entry (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 5,000 TTDF personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the TTDF's ground force inventory includes only light weapons, while the Coast Guard and Air Guard field mostly secondhand equipment from a mix of countries, including Australia, China, the Netherlands, the UK, and the US (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 240 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 130 million cubic meters (202 est.)

agricultural: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 727,874 tons (2010 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.26 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 43.87 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 1.35 megatons (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 99.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 30,886,691,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 16,247,415,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 14,662,269,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 298.063 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 81,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 35,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 22,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 64,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 243 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.8 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

48.6% (2023 est.)


0.68% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.96% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.93% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

675,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 12.7% (2021 est.)

male: 12.8%

female: 12.6%

Net migration rate

-1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 38 years (2023 est.)

male: 37.5 years

female: 38.4 years

Debt - external

$8.238 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.746 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

27 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.832 billion (2022 est.)
$6.88 billion (2021 est.)
$6.954 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

41.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
37% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1% of GDP (2020 est.)
1% of GDP (2019 est.)
1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.81% (2022 est.)
4.45% (2021 est.)
4.21% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


1,407,460 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-8.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 1.185 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 79% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

39.652 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 10,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 4.631 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 35.011 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 5,128 sq km

land: 5,128 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.55% (of GDP) (2019 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.667 billion (2022 est.)
$35.146 billion (2021 est.)
$35.514 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


3 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 15.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 17.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,999,029 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (2022 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.83% (2022 est.)
2.06% (2021 est.)
0.6% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

106,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$5.382 billion (2022 est.)
$2.695 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.356 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$23,300 (2022 est.)
$23,000 (2021 est.)
$23,400 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 376,771 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 27 (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

18.6% (2016)

Death rate

8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 2.123 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 8,213,020,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 424 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 102 (2023)

by type: general cargo 1, other 101


$10.694 billion (2022 est.)
$8.636 billion (2021 est.)
$6.785 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$17.584 billion (2022 est.)
$11.542 billion (2021 est.)
$6.44 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 326,483 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (2022 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.81 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.92 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.65 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 74.3 years

female: 78.2 years

Real GDP growth rate

1.48% (2022 est.)
-1.04% (2021 est.)
-9.08% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

3.18% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.4% (2017 est.)

industry: 47.8% (2017 est.)

services: 51.7% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

4.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.12% (2023 est.)