Gibraltar - GI - GIB - Europe

Last updated: March 13, 2024
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Gibraltar Factbook Data

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.99% (male 3,034/female 2,888)

15-64 years: 62.62% (male 9,357/female 9,197)

65 years and over: 17.39% (2023 est.) (male 2,523/female 2,630)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Gibraltar. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

36 08 N, 5 21 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

occasional droughts; no streams or large bodies of water on the peninsula (all potable water comes from desalination)

Area - comparative

more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Background

Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy; legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. A new noncolonial constitution came into force in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

Spain and the UK continue to spar over the territory. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols, and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. Spain renewed its demands for an eventual return of Gibraltar to Spanish control after the UK’s June 2016 vote to leave the EU, but London has dismissed any connection between the vote and its continued sovereignty over Gibraltar. 


Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources: more than 90% of drinking water supplied by desalination, the remainder from stored rainwater; a separate supply of saltwater used for sanitary services

Population below poverty line

NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, ships, refined petroleum, recreational boats, designer watches (2021)

Exports - partners

Poland 31%, Netherlands 27%, France 11%, Germany 8%, United States 6% (2019)

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Agricultural products

none

Military and security forces

Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2024)

Budget

revenues: $475.8 million (2008 est.)

expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)

Capital

name: Gibraltar

geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, recreational boats, cars, coal tar oil, crude petroleum (2019)

Climate

Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Coastline

12 km

Constitution

history: previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007

amendments: proposed by Parliament and requires prior consent of the British monarch (through the Secretary of State); passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote in Parliament followed by simple majority vote in a referendum; note – only sections 1 through 15 in Chapter 1 (Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms) can be amended by Parliament

Exchange rates

Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.727 (2021 est.)
0.78 (2020 est.)
0.783 (2019 est.)
0.75 (2018 est.)
0.777 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Sir David STEEL (since 11 June 2020)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Flag description

two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judges normally appointed until retirement at age 67 but tenure can be extended 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment

Land boundaries

total: 1.2 km

border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km

Land use

agricultural land: 0% (2011 est.)

other: 100% (2018 est.)

Legal system

the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 October 2019 (next to be held by February 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP-Liberal Alliance 58.8% (GSLP 41.2%, LPG 17.6%), GSD 35.3%, TG 5.8%, independent 1.4%; seats by party - GSLP-Liberal Alliance 10 (GSLP 7, LPG 3), GSD 6, TG 1; composition including Parliament speaker - men 16, women 2, percent of women 11.1%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

International organization participation

ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU

National holiday

National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain

Nationality

noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar

Natural resources

none

Geography - note

note 1: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

note 2: one of only two British territories where traffic drives on the right, the other being the island of Diego Garcia in the British Indian Ocean Territory

Economic overview

British territorial high-income economy; Brexit caused significant economic disruption to longstanding financial services, shipping, and tourism industries; ongoing negotiations to rejoin EU Schengen Area; independent taxation authority

Political parties and leaders

Gibraltar Liberal Party or Liberal Party of Gibraltar or LPG [Joseph GARCIA]
Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Keith AZOPARDI]
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
Together Gibraltar or TG [Marlene HASSAN-NAHON]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Gibraltar

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Gibraltar’s population is urban-based, served by a digital telephone exchange supported by a fiber optic and copper infrastructure; near universal mobile and Internet use (2019)

domestic: 53 per 100 fixed-line and 100 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 350; landing point for the EIG to Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East via submarine cables; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Terrain

a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gibraltar

etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar

Location

Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Map references

Europe

Irrigated land

NA

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Internet country code

.gi

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.044 billion (2014 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Broadcast media

Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible

National anthem

name: "Gibraltar Anthem"

lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

Major urban areas - population

35,000 GIBRALTAR (capital) (2018)

National symbol(s)

Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

VP-G

Ethnic groups

Gibraltarian 79%, other British 13.2%, Spanish 2.1%, Moroccan 1.6%, other EU 2.4%, other 1.6% (2012 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality

Religions

Roman Catholic 72.1%, Church of England 7.7%, other Christian 3.8%, Muslim 3.6%, Jewish 2.4%, Hindu 2%, other 1.1%, none 7.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2012 est.)

Languages

English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Imports - partners

Spain 19%, US 12%, India 12%, Italy 12%, Netherlands 11%, United Kingdom 7%, Greece 6% (2019)

Disputes - international

the status of Gibraltar and how to police the border with Spain has been a point of contention since the UK's 2016 vote to leave the EU; the peninsula was excluded from the exit deal reached between Britain and the EU; informal arrangements are in place while the two sides negotiate over Gibraltar, which overwhelmingly backed remaining in the EU in the Brexit referendum

Elevation

highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Physicians density

NA

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

NA

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.1

youth dependency ratio: 27.4

elderly dependency ratio: 32.7

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Royal Gibraltar Regiment has more than 400 personnel (2023)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 16,954 tons (2012 est.)

Air pollutants

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.63 megatons (2016 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 74.756 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 56.719 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 83,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.93 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

40.7% (2023 est.)

Labor force

24,420 (2014 est.)

Net migration rate

-3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 36.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 36 years

female: 37.2 years

Debt - external

NA

Refined petroleum products - imports

74,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
8.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.9 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

1% (2016 est.)

Population

29,629 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.1% (of GDP) (2008 est.)

Internet users

total: 31,152 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 94.4% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

14.256 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 14.146 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 111,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 7 sq km

land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

23.3% (of GDP) (2008 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.044 billion (2014 est.)
$1.85 billion (2013 est.)
$2 billion (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2014 dollars

Roadways

total: 29 km (2007)

paved: 29 km (2007)

Airports

1 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 34,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.5% (2013 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$61,700 (2014 est.)
$43,000 (2008 est.)
$41,200 (2007 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 21,009 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (2020 est.)

Energy consumption per capita

0 Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

13.8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 43,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 198.86 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 7 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 129 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 8, container ship 5, general cargo 31, oil tanker 16, other 69

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$2.967 billion (2004 est.)

Exports

$202.3 million (2014 est.)
$271 million (2004 est.)

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 17,155 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 77.8 years

female: 83.6 years

Industrial production growth rate

NA

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0% (2016 est.)

industry: 0% (2008 est.)

services: 100% (2016 est.)

Education expenditures

NA

Population growth rate

0.19% (2023 est.)