- Introduction :: Guinea-Bissau
- Background:Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian General Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite eventually setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free, multiparty election. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was reelected, pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from a long-term illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place. Following mediation by the Economic Community of Western African States, a civilian transitional government assumed power in 2012 and remained until Jose Mario VAZ won a free and fair election in 2014. Beginning in 2015, a political dispute between factions in the ruling PAIGC party brought government gridlock. It was not until April 2018 that a consensus prime minister could be appointed, the national legislature reopened (having been closed for two years), and a new government formed under Prime Minister Aristides GOMES.
- Geography :: Guinea-Bissau
- Location:Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and SenegalGeographic coordinates:12 00 N, 15 00 WMap references:AfricaArea:total: 36,125 sq kmland: 28,120 sq kmwater: 8,005 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 138Area - comparative:slightly less than three times the size of ConnecticutLand boundaries:total: 762 kmborder countries (2): Guinea 421 km, Senegal 341 kmCoastline:350 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan windsTerrain:mostly low-lying coastal plain with a deeply indented estuarine coastline rising to savanna in east; numerous off-shore islands including the Arquipelago Dos Bijagos consisting of 18 main islands and many small isletsElevation:mean elevation: 70 mlowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 mNatural resources:fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleumLand use:agricultural land: 44.8% (2011 est.)arable land: 8.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 6.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.7% (2011 est.)forest: 55.2% (2011 est.)other: 0% (2011 est.)Irrigated land:250 sq km (2012)Population distribution:approximately one-fifth of the population lives in the capital city of Bissau along the Atlantic coast; the remainder is distributed among the eight other, mainly rural, regionsNatural hazards:hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush firesEnvironment - current issues:deforestation (rampant felling of trees for timber and agricultural purposes); soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishingEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
- People and Society :: Guinea-Bissau
- Population:1,833,247 (July 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Nationality:noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)adjective: Bissau-GuineanEthnic groups:Fulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)Languages:Crioulo (lingua franca), Portuguese (official; largely used as a second or third language), Pular (a Fula language), MandingoReligions:Muslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)Demographic profile:
Guinea-Bissau’s young and growing population is sustained by high fertility; approximately 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Its large reproductive-age population and total fertility rate of more than 4 children per woman offsets the country’s high infant and maternal mortality rates. The latter is among the world’s highest because of the prevalence of early childbearing, a lack of birth spacing, the high percentage of births outside of health care facilities, and a shortage of medicines and supplies.
Guinea-Bissau’s history of political instability, a civil war, and several coups (the latest in 2012) have resulted in a fragile state with a weak economy, high unemployment, rampant corruption, widespread poverty, and thriving drug and child trafficking. With the country lacking educational infrastructure, school funding and materials, and qualified teachers, and with the cultural emphasis placed on religious education, parents frequently send boys to study in residential Koranic schools (daaras) in Senegal and The Gambia. They often are extremely deprived and are forced into street begging or agricultural work by marabouts (Muslim religious teachers), who enrich themselves at the expense of the children. Boys who leave their marabouts often end up on the streets of Dakar or other large Senegalese towns and are vulnerable to even worse abuse.
Some young men lacking in education and job prospects become involved in the flourishing international drug trade. Local drug use and associated violent crime are growing.Age structure:0-14 years: 43.55% (male 400,666 /female 397,704)15-24 years: 20.23% (male 181,286 /female 189,515)25-54 years: 29.9% (male 259,762 /female 288,300)55-64 years: 3.29% (male 27,621 /female 32,611)65 years and over: 3.04% (male 24,331 /female 31,451) (2018 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 80.4 (2015 est.)youth dependency ratio: 75.2 (2015 est.)elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)potential support ratio: 19.3 (2015 est.)Median age:total: 17.8 yearsmale: 17.2 yearsfemale: 18.5 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 216Population growth rate:2.48% (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Birth rate:37.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Death rate:8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 79Net migration rate:-4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 185Population distribution:approximately one-fifth of the population lives in the capital city of Bissau along the Atlantic coast; the remainder is distributed among the eight other, mainly rural, regionsUrbanization:urban population: 43.4% of total population (2018)rate of urbanization: 3.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)Major urban areas - population:558,000 BISSAU (capital) (2018)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)Maternal mortality rate:549 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Infant mortality rate:total: 54.8 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 61 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 20Life expectancy at birth:total population: 61.4 yearsmale: 59.2 yearsfemale: 63.6 years (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Total fertility rate:4.81 children born/woman (2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Contraceptive prevalence rate:16% (2014)Health expenditures:5.6% of GDP (2014)country comparison to the world: 120Physicians density:0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2015)Hospital bed density:1 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved: urban: 98.8% of populationrural: 60.3% of populationtotal: 79.3% of populationunimproved: urban: 1.2% of populationrural: 39.7% of populationtotal: 20.7% of population (2015 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved: urban: 33.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)total: 20.8% of population (2015 est.)unimproved: urban: 66.5% of population (2015 est.)rural: 91.5% of population (2015 est.)total: 79.2% of population (2015 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:3.4% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 17HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:40,000 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 64HIV/AIDS - deaths:1,900 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 53Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high (2016)food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever (2016)water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:9.5% (2016)country comparison to the world: 144Children under the age of 5 years underweight:17% (2014)country comparison to the world: 34Education expenditures:2.1% of GDP (2013)country comparison to the world: 167Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)total population: 59.9%male: 71.8%female: 48.3% (2015 est.)
- Government :: Guinea-Bissau
- Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissauconventional short form: Guinea-Bissaulocal long form: Republica da Guine-Bissaulocal short form: Guine-Bissauformer: Portuguese Guineaetymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; "Bissau," the name of the capital city, distinguishes the country from neighboring GuineaGovernment type:semi-presidential republicCapital:name: Bissaugeographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 Wtime difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama/Bijagos, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, TombaliIndependence:24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)National holiday:Independence Day, 24 September (1973)Constitution:history: promulgated 16 May 1984; note - constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 and restored in 2014amendments: proposed by the National People’s Assembly if supported by at least one-third of its members, by the Council of State (a presidential consultant body), or by the government; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government and national sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 1991, 1993, 1996 (2017)Legal system:mixed legal system of civil law, which incorporated Portuguese law at independence and influenced by early French civil code and customary lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCtCitizenship:citizenship by birth: yescitizenship by descent only: yesdual citizenship recognized: noresidency requirement for naturalization: 5 yearsSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Jose Mario VAZ (since 17 June 2014)head of government: Prime Minister Aristides GOMES (since 16 April 2018)cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the presidentelections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 April 2014 with a runoff on 18 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assemblyelection results: Jose Mario VAZ elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Mario VAZ (PAIGC) 41%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (independent) 25.1%, other 33.9%; percent of vote in second round - Jose Mario VAZ 61.9%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM 38.1%Legislative branch:description: unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (102 seats; 100 members directly elected in 27 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote and 2 elected in single-seat constituencies for citizens living abroad (1 for Africa, 1 for Europe); all members serve 4-year terms)elections: last held on 10 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2023)election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 35.2%, Madem G-15 21.1%, PRS 21.1%, other 22.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 47, Madem G-15 27, PRS 21, other 7; composition - men 88, women 14, percent of women 13.7%Judicial branch:highest courts: Supreme Court or Suprema da Tribunal Justica (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers); note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdictionjudge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and judiciary discipline; judges appointed by the president for lifesubordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military courtPolitical parties and leaders:African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cabo Verde or PAIGC [Domingos SIMOES PEREIRA]
Democratic Convergence Party or PCD [Vicente FERNANDES]
New Democracy Party or PND [Mamadu Iaia DJALO]
Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA]
Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
Union for Change or UM [Agnelo REGALA]International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DCDiplomatic representation from the US:The U.S. embassy in Bissau suspended operations on 14 June 1998; the US ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissauthe US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and a military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-BissauFlag description:two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flagNational symbol(s):black star; national colors: red, yellow, green, blackNational anthem:name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He
note: adopted 1974; a delegation from then Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRAL, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
- Economy :: Guinea-Bissau
- Economy - overview:
Guinea-Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, cashew nut exports, and foreign assistance. Two out of three Bissau-Guineans remain below the absolute poverty line. The legal economy is based on cashews and fishing. Illegal logging and trafficking in narcotics also play significant roles. The combination of limited economic prospects, weak institutions, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe.
Guinea-Bissau has substantial potential for development of mineral resources, including phosphates, bauxite, and mineral sands. Offshore oil and gas exploration has begun. The country’s climate and soil make it feasible to grow a wide range of cash crops, fruit, vegetables, and tubers; however, cashews generate more than 80% of export receipts and are the main source of income for many rural communities.
The government was deposed in August 2015, and since then, a political stalemate has resulted in weak governance and reduced donor support.
The country is participating in a three-year, IMF extended credit facility program that was suspended because of a planned bank bailout. The program was renewed in 2017, but the major donors of direct budget support (the EU, World Bank, and African Development Bank) have halted their programs indefinitely. Diversification of the economy remains a key policy goal, but Guinea-Bissau’s poor infrastructure and business climate will constrain this effort.GDP (purchasing power parity):$3.171 billion (2017 est.)$2.994 billion (2016 est.)$2.817 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollarscountry comparison to the world: 188GDP (official exchange rate):$1.35 billion (2017 est.)GDP - real growth rate:5.9% (2017 est.)6.3% (2016 est.)6.1% (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 36GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,900 (2017 est.)$1,800 (2016 est.)$1,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollarscountry comparison to the world: 212Gross national saving:8.6% of GDP (2017 est.)10.1% of GDP (2016 est.)10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 168GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 83.9% (2017 est.)government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)investment in fixed capital: 4.1% (2017 est.)investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)exports of goods and services: 26.4% (2017 est.)imports of goods and services: -26.5% (2017 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 50% (2017 est.)industry: 13.1% (2017 est.)services: 36.9% (2017 est.)Agriculture - products:rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fishIndustries:agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinksIndustrial production growth rate:2.5% (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 117Labor force:731,300 (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 82%industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:
NAPopulation below poverty line:67% (2015 est.)Budget:revenues: 246.2 million (2017 est.)expenditures: 263.5 million (2017 est.)Taxes and other revenues:18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 86Public debt:53.9% of GDP (2017 est.)57.9% of GDP (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):1.1% (2017 est.)1.5% (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 60Central bank discount rate:4.25% (31 December 2009)4.75% (31 December 2008)country comparison to the world: 94Commercial bank prime lending rate:5.5% (31 December 2017 est.)5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Stock of narrow money:$583.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)$489.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 166Stock of broad money:$583.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)$489.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 170Stock of domestic credit:$250.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)$232.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 182Current account balance:-$27 million (2017 est.)$16 million (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Exports:$328.1 million (2017 est.)$278.6 million (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 185Exports - partners:India 67.1%, Vietnam 21.1% (2017)Exports - commodities:fish, shrimp; cashews, peanuts, palm kernels, raw and sawn lumberImports:$283.5 million (2017 est.)$136.5 million (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 205Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum productsImports - partners:Portugal 47.8%, Senegal 12.1%, China 10.4%, Netherlands 8.1%, Pakistan 5.4% (2017)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$356.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)$349.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Debt - external:$1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)$941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -605.3 (2017 est.)593.01 (2016 est.)593.01 (2015 est.)591.45 (2014 est.)494.42 (2013 est.)
- Energy :: Guinea-Bissau
- Electricity access:population without electricity: 1.3 million (2013)electrification - total population: 21% (2013)electrification - urban areas: 37% (2013)electrification - rural areas: 6% (2013)Electricity - production:39 million kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 208Electricity - consumption:36.27 million kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 208Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 145Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Electricity - installed generating capacity:28,300 kW (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 200Electricity - from fossil fuels:99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 24Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 104Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 176Electricity - from other renewable sources:1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 145Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Refined petroleum products - consumption:2,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 190Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Refined petroleum products - imports:2,625 bbl/day (2015 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 143Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 118Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 144Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:397,900 Mt (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 188
- Communications :: Guinea-Bissau
- Telephones - fixed lines:0 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 220Telephones - mobile cellular:total subscriptions: 1,434,822 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 155Telephone system:general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications; 3 mobile network operators (MNO)domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 70 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 245 (2015)Broadcast media:1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)Internet country code:.gwInternet users:total: 66,169 (July 2016 est.)percent of population: 3.8% (July 2016 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Broadband - fixed subscriptions:total: 629 (2017 est.)subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)country comparison to the world: 194
- Transportation :: Guinea-Bissau
- Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:J5 (2016)Airports:8 (2013)country comparison to the world: 160Airports - with paved runways:total: 2 (2017)over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 6 (2013)1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)under 914 m: 3 (2013)Roadways:Waterways:(rivers are partially navigable; many inlets and creeks provide shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)Merchant marine:total: 9by type: general cargo 5, other 4 (2018)country comparison to the world: 156Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
- Military and Security :: Guinea-Bissau
- Military expenditures:1.76% of GDP (2015)1.94% of GDP (2014)2.11% of GDP (2013)2.46% of GDP (2012)1.58% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 63Military branches:People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)Military service age and obligation:18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
- Transnational Issues :: Guinea-Bissau
- Disputes - international:
a longstanding low-grade conflict continues in parts of Casamance, in Senegal across the border; some rebels use Guinea-Bissau as a safe havenRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 10,000 (Senegal) (2018)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Guinea-Bissau is a source country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the extent to which adults are trafficked for forced labor or forced prostitution is unclear; boys are forced into street vending in Guinea-Bissau and manual labor, agriculture, and mining in Senegal, while girls may be forced into street vending, domestic service, and, to a lesser extent, prostitution in Guinea and Senegal; some Bissau-Guinean boys at Koranic schools are forced into begging by religious teacherstier rating: Tier 3 - Guinea-Bissau does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite enacting an anti-trafficking law and adopting a national action plan in 2011, the country failed to demonstrate any notable anti-trafficking efforts for the third consecutive year; existing laws prohibiting all forms of trafficking were not used to prosecute any trafficking offenders in 2014, and only one case of potential child labor trafficking was under investigation; authorities continued to rely entirely on NGOs and international organizations to provide victims with protective services; no trafficking prevention activities were conducted (2015)Illicit drugs:increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations due to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography near the capital facilitates drug smuggling
GW - Guinea-Bissau (GNB)
Africa :: Guinea-Bissau