Slovenia - SI - SVN - SLO - Europe

Last updated: March 18, 2024
Slovenia flag
Slovenia locator map
Slovenia map

Slovenia Images

Slovenia Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jamie L. HARPOOTLIAN  (since 17 February 2022)

embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana

mailing address: 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140

telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500

FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555

email address and website:
LjubljanaACS@state.gov

https://si.usembassy.gov/

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.55% (male 156,499/female 148,987)

15-64 years: 62.73% (male 685,750/female 631,553)

65 years and over: 22.72% (2023 est.) (male 208,832/female 268,169)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Slovenia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

46 07 N, 14 49 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

flooding; earthquakes

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey
Area comparison map

slightly smaller than New Jersey


Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; must be a citizen of the Republic of Slovenia; recruits sign up for 3-, 5-, or 10-year service contracts; conscription abolished in 2003 (2023)

note: as of 2023, women comprised about 16% of the military's full-time personnel

Background

The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, Slovenia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia joined Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia as one of the constituent republics in the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). In 1990, Slovenia held its first multiparty elections, as well as a referendum on independence. Serbia responded with an economic blockade and military action, but after a short 10-day war, Slovenia declared independence in 1991. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen Area in 2007.

Environment - current issues

air pollution from road traffic, domestic heating (wood buring), power generation, and industry; water pollution; biodiversity protection

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

12% (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 20.1% (2016)

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, electrical lighting/signaling equipment, electricity (2019)

Exports - partners

Germany 18%, Italy 11%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7%, France 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 12 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)

municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal ob Soci, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Store, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk

urban municipalities: Celje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje


Agricultural products

milk, maize, wheat, grapes, barley, potatoes, poultry, apples, beef, pork

Military and security forces

Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): structured as a combined force with air, land, maritime, special operations, combat support, and combat service support elements

Ministry of Interior: National Police (2024)

Budget

revenues: $23.735 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $23.456 billion (2019 est.)

Capital

name: Ljubljana

geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: likely related to the Slavic root "ljub", meaning "to like" or "to love"; by tradition, the name is related to the Slovene word "ljubljena" meaning "beloved"

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, electricity (2019)

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Coastline

46.6 km

Constitution

history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991

amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2016

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Natasa PIRC MUSAR (since 23 December 2022); note - PIRC MUSAR is Slovenia's first female president

head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 1 June 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 23 October 2022 with a runoff on 13 November 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results:
2022:
Natasa PIRC MUSAR elected president in second round: percent of vote in first round - Anze LOGAR (SDS) 34%, Natasa PIRC MUSAR (independent) 26.9%, Milan BRGLEZ (SD) 15.5%, Vladimir PREBILIC (independent) 10.6%, Sabina SENCAR (Resni.ca) 5.9%, Janez CIGLER KRALJ (NSi) 4.4%, other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR 53.9%, Anze LOGAR 46.1%; Robert GOLOB (GS) elected prime minister on 25 May 2022, National Assembly vote - 54-30

2017:
Borut PAHOR reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

Industries

ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among its own membership for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court

Land boundaries

total: 1,211 km

border countries (4): Austria 299 km; Croatia 600 km; Hungary 94 km; Italy 218 km

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 62.3% (2018 est.)

other: 14.9% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (State Council)or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
National Council - last held on 24 November 2022 (next to be held in 2027)
National Assembly - last held on 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition (as of January 2023) - men 33, women 7, percent of women 17.5%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - GS 34.5%, SDS 23.5%, NSi 6.9%, SD 6.7%, Levica 4.4%, other 24%; seats by party - GS 41, SDS 27, NSi 8, SD 7, Levica 5; composition (as of January 2023) - men 56, women 34, percent of women 37.8%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31.5%

Literacy

definition: NA

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.7% (2015)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Nationality

noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Natural resources

lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Geography - note

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

Economic overview

high-income, fast-growing EU-member economy; high human capital; key health infrastructure investments; high government spending; key Croatian investments; high-technology and manufacturing sectors; growing financial hub

Pipelines

1,155 km gas, 5 km oil (2018)

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Ljubo JASNIC]
Freedom Movement or GS [Robert GOLOB] (formerly Greens Actions Party or Z.DEJ)
List of Marjan Sarec or LMS [Marjan SAREC]
New Slovenia - Christian Democrats or NSi [Matej TONIN]
Party of Alenka Bratusek or SAB [Alenka BRATUSEK] (formerly Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD and before that Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB)
Resni.ca [Zoran STEVANOVICH]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA] (formerly the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDSS)
Slovenian National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC Plemeniti]
Social Democrats or SD [Tanja FAJON]
The Left or Levica [Luka MESEC] (successor to United Left or ZL)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Koper

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Slovenia’s telecom sector is dominated by four operators; the mobile market has four MNOs and a small number of MVNOs, operating in a country with a potential market of just over two million people; the regulator in recent years has addressed the need for mobile operators to have more spectrum, so enabling them to improve the quality and range of services; a multi-spectrum auction was concluded in mid-2021, aimed at supporting 5G services; the broadband market continues to be dominated by a small number of players; DSL lost its dominance some years ago, being taken over by fiber as subscribers are migrated to new fiber-based networks; fiber accounted for almost half of all fixed broadband connections by March 2022 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is 32 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 126 per 100 teledensity (2022)

international: country code - 386 (2016)

Terrain

a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

etymology: the country's name means "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene

Location

south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia

Map references

Europe

Irrigated land

39 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Iztok MIROŠIČ (since 15 September 2023)

chancery: 2410 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 386-6611

FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633

email address and website:
sloembassy.washington@gov.si

http://www.washington.embassy.si/

consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)

Internet country code

.si

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,035 (Ukraine) (as of 1 March 2024)

stateless persons: 10 (2020)

note:  631,160 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-January 2024)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$54.16 billion (2019 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2019)

Moody's rating: A3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: AA- (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

31.87 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2020)

Urbanization

urban population: 56.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)

lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted in 1989 while still part of Yugoslavia; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Slovenia. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

286,000 LJUBLJANA (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

3.28 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.4 beds/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red

Mother's mean age at first birth

29 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 82.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -72.6% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.5

youth dependency ratio: 23.6

elderly dependency ratio: 31.9

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,094,762 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 540,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

S5

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 est.)

Religions

Catholic 69%, Orthodox 4%, Muslim 3%, Christian 1%, other 3%, atheist 14%, non-believer/agnostic 4%, refused to answer 2% (2019 est.)

Languages

Slovene (official) 87.7%, Croatian 2.8%, Serbo-Croatian 1.8%, Bosnian 1.6%, Serbian 1.6%, Hungarian 0.4% (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside), Italian 0.2% (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), other or unspecified 3.9% (2002 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Svetovni informativni zvezek - neobhoden vir osnovnih informacij. (Slovene)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Imports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Austria 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 7% (2019)

Disputes - international

Slovenia-Austria: none identified

Slovenia-Croatia: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piran Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; in June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a ruling on the border, but Croatia had withdrawn from the proceedings in 2015 and refused to implement it; Croatia joined the Schengen Area in January 2023, resulting in all of Slovenia’s borders being within the border-free Schengen Area

Slovenia-Hungary: none identified

Slovenia-Italy: none identified


Elevation

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 492 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

NA

Current health expenditure

9.5% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska or SV) are responsible for the defense of the country’s sovereignty and territory, deterring external threats, and contributing to European security and other international peacekeeping missions; the SV is also active in civil-military cooperation, such as the maintenance of local infrastructure; Slovenia has been a member of the EU and NATO since 2004, and one of the SV’s key missions is fulfilling the country’s commitments to NATO, including equipment modernization, participating in training exercises, and contributing to NATO missions; the SV provides troops to NATO’s efforts to enhance its presence in the Baltics (Latvia) and Eastern Europe (Slovakia); it has also participated in other international security missions with small numbers of personnel in such places as Africa, southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Middle East

the SV is configured as a joint force with land, naval, air, and special forces components; the SV is led by a General Staff with a joint-service Forces Command controlling the operational elements; the principal land combat units are two infantry brigades, but they may be organized as battlegroups or other response forces based on their mission; the naval component has a few patrol boats; the SV air component has no fighter aircraft, and NATO allies Hungary and Italy provide air policing for Slovenia

the SV was formally established in 1993 as a reorganization of the Slovenia Defense Force; the Defense Force, along with the Slovenian police, comprised the majority of the forces that engaged with the Yugoslav People’s Army during the 10-Day War after Slovenia declared its independence in 1991 (2023)

Heliports

4 (2024)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 6,000 active-duty troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and smaller quantities of more modern, mostly Western equipment; in recent years, Slovenia has begun a modernization program and imported growing amounts of European and US equipment  (2023)

Military deployments

100 Kosovo (NATO); 100 Slovakia (NATO) (2024)

note: in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, some NATO countries, including Slovenia, have sent additional troops and equipment to the battlegroups deployed in NATO territory in eastern Europe

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 170 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 830 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 3.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 926,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 430,034 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 46.4% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 14.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 12.63 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Škocjan Caves (n); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (n); Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps (c); Heritage of Mercury: Almadén and Idrija (c); The works of Jože Plečnik in Ljubljana (c)

Coal

production: 3.175 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.502 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 3,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 335,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 371 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 27.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 36.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 32% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 4.899 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 904.439 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 903.108 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 54,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

46.4% (2023 est.)

Remittances

1.21% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.22% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.22% of GDP (2019 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 1 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0.69GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 36.9% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 40.6% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 2

global geoparks and regional networks: Idrija; Karawanken / Karavanke (includes Austria) (2023)

Labor force

1.036 million (2021 est.)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 13.9% (2021 est.)

male: 12.7%

female: 15.5%

Net migration rate

1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 45.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 44.6 years

female: 47.5 years

Debt - external

$48.656 billion (2019 est.)
$50.004 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.267 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.311 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.015 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Waterways

710 km (2022) (some transport on the Drava River)

Refined petroleum products - imports

93,060 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Public debt

73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
78.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the central, state, local government, and social security funds

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2024 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2022)
1.2% of GDP (2021)
1% of GDP (2020)

Unemployment rate

4.42% (2021 est.)
4.97% (2020 est.)
4.45% (2019 est.)

Population

2,099,790 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 1.869 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

13.553 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 4.08 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.967 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Area

total: 20,273 sq km

land: 20,151 sq km

water: 122 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.92% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$84.4 billion (2021 est.)
$77.996 billion (2020 est.)
$81.519 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Roadways

total: 38,125 km (2022)

Airports

42 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 1.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 2,674,900 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2022 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

24.4 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.92% (2021 est.)
-0.05% (2020 est.)
1.63% (2019 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

29,350 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Current account balance

$2.372 billion (2021 est.)
$4.058 billion (2020 est.)
$3.23 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$40,000 (2021 est.)
$37,100 (2020 est.)
$39,000 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 651,604 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 22% (2020 est.)

male: 24.4% (2020 est.)

female: 19.6% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.2% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

134.836 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

8.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 4.062 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 13.447 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 9.123 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 7.12 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 848 million kWh (2020 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 8 (2023)

by type: other 8

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

NA

Imports

$47.665 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$36.804 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$40.809 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Exports

$51.634 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$41.823 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$45.516 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 675,823 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2022 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.54 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 5.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.2 years

female: 85 years

Real GDP growth rate

8.21% (2021 est.)
-4.32% (2020 est.)
3.45% (2019 est.)

Industrial production growth rate

9.43% (2021 est.)

Railways

total: 1,207 km (2020) 609 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.2% (2017 est.)

services: 65.9% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

5.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.08% (2023 est.)